Privacy – Research participants’ right to determine what personal information they will disclose.

Program-level assessment – The general education program is assessed within the program, such as among social science general education courses, to monitor and improve student learning within the program.

Protocol. See Interview protocol.

Purposeful sample – A sample created using predetermined criteria, such as proportional representation of students at each class level.

Qualitative assessment – Assessment findings are verbal descriptions of what was discovered, rather than numerical scores.

Quantitative assessment – Assessment findings are summarized with a number that indicates the extent of learning.

Quantitative literacy – Understanding the process and application of mathematics

Random sample – A sample selected in such a way that each member of the population is equally likely to be included.

Recall item – A test item that requires students to generate the answer on their own, rather than to identify the answer in a provided list.

Recognition item – A test item that requires students to identify the answer in a provided list.

Reflective essay – Respondents are asked to write essays on personal perspectives and experiences.

Reliability – The degree of measurement precision and stability for a test or assessment procedure.

Representative sample – An unbiased sample that adequately represents the population from which the sample is drawn.

Response rate – The proportion of contacted individuals who respond to a request.

Roadblock course – See Gateway course.

Rubric – An explicit scheme for classifying products or behaviors into categories that are steps along a continuum.

Sampling distribution – The probability distribution of a statistic calculated in all possible samples of the same size.

Sampling fluctuation – Variability in a statistic across samples.

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