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reduce or offset CO2. Therefore, recycled

material has

a higher value

than virgin

resources, as it requires less energy and CO2 emissions to produce the same product.

For every tonne (1 long ton = 1.01604691 tonnes) of recycled copper, 13 to 19.7 tonnes of CO2 emission equivalents are curbed (see Table 4). Similarly, for every tonne of recycled copper, 346.04 tonnes of hidden flow waste equivalents are curbed. Hidden flow waste is associated with extraction and processing of resources, but is typically unaccounted for in the waste stream. Hidden flow waste typically accounts for 2/3 of a product’s impact; these hidden flows are in the form of mining waste, devastated forests, ruined agricultural land, or leachate-producing landfills. 88

According to the Navy, the Ex-FORRESTAL aircraft carrier alone contains approximately 40,000 tons of recyclable material that can reenter the U.S. market to offset primary production. Referencing Table 5 to make calculations in Table 6, it is revealed that recycling the Ex-FORRESTAL will prevent 73,726 tonnes (162,538,007 pounds) of CO2

from entering

the atmosphere.

This is

equivalent to

removing 14,097

passenger

vehicles from the road for a year;89

the

equivalent of preventing 385 railcars of coal

from burning in a coal fired-power plant;90

the

equivalent emissions from electricity use of 8,947 homes for one year.91 The curbed CO2

Waste & Climate Change Background document for the ISWA & DAKOFA conference on Waste & Climate Change 3-4 December 2009 in Copenhagen - to be held in connection to the UN Climate Summit COP 15 in Copenhagen 7-18 December 2009 88

89

8 . 8 9 * 1 0 - 3

m e t r i c t o n s

C O 2 / g a l l o n g a s o l i n e

* 1 1 , 7 2 0 V M T

car/truck

average * 1/20.4 miles per gallon car/truck average * 1 CO2, CH4, and N2O/0.977 CO2 = 5.23 metric tons CO2E /vehicle/year http://www.epa.gov/cleanenergy/energy-resources/refs.html

22.68 mmbtu/metric ton coal * 25.34 kg C/mmbtu * 44g CO2/12g C * 90.89 metric tons coal/railcar * 1 metric ton/1000 kg = 191.5 metric tons CO2/railcar year http://www.epa.gov/cleanenergy/energy-resources/refs.html 90

12,773 kWh per home * 1,422.40 lbs CO2 per megawatt-hour delivered * 1 mWh/1000 kWh * 1 metric ton/2204.6 lb = 8.24 91

EXTERNALIZED COSTS

emissions would otherwise require over 15,000 acres of pine or fir forests for adequate carbon

sequestration,92

or 1,890,410 tree seedlings

grown for 10 years.93

The energy savings and related CO2 emissions curbed by recycling the Ex-FORRESTAL, as compared to the ocean disposal option can be represented as carbon credits with a related

monetary

value.

73,726

tonnes

of

CO2

emissions would be curbed by recycling the vessel; this is the equivalent of 171,456 barrels of oil consumed,94 or 8,293,138 gallons of

gasoline.95

If we use crude oil as our energy

equivalency, we see an energy savings value of approximately $14.3 million (171,456 barrels of crude oil x $83.42 per barrel96). However, if we use the retail value of gasoline as our energy equivalency, we see an energy savings value of approximately $23.7 million (8,293,138 gallons of gasoline x $2.86 per gallon97). These energy equivalencies serve as examples and do not necessarily represent actual values for curbed CO2 emissions due to the fact that energy savings are likely related to a combination of fossil fuels, including crude oil, gasoline and coal. The Navy spent a reported $6.4 million98 preparing the Ex-FORRESTAL for dumping at sea prior to changing their plans to recycle the vessel in the U.S.

metric tons CO2/home. http://www.epa.gov/cleanenergy/energy-resources/refs.html

92 4.69 metric tons of CO2 per acre of pine or fir forests http://www.epa.gov/cleanenergy/energy-resources/refs.html

23.2 lbs C/tree * (44 units CO2 / 12 units C) * 1 metric ton / 2204.6 lbs = 0.039 metric ton CO2 per urban tree http://www.epa.gov/cleanenergy/energy-resources/refs.html 93

5.80 mmbtu/barrel * 20.33 kg C/mmbtu * 44 g CO2/12 g C * 1 metric ton/1000 kg = 0.43 metric tons CO2/barrel http://www.epa.gov/cleanenergy/energy-resources/refs.html 94

2,425 grams C/gallon * 100% oxidation factor * 44 g CO2/12 g C * 1 metric ton/1,000,000 g = 8.89*10-3 metric tons CO2/gallon of gasoline http://www.epa.gov/cleanenergy/energy-resources/refs.html 95

Crude Oil and Commodity Prices, 4/21/2010, http://www.oil- price.net/ 96

US Energy Information Administration, 4/19/2010, http://tonto.eia.doe.gov/oog/info/gdu/gasdiesel.asp 97

Roberts, Kathleen. Public Affairs Specialist, Naval Sea Systems Command 98

BASEL ACTION NETWORK

35

2011

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