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Table 6: C02 Emissions and Hidden Flow Savings from Recycling .................................................. 36 Table 7: Ex-FORRESTAL CO2 Emissions and Hidden Flow Savings from Recycling ..................... 36 Fishery Resource Costs............................................................................................................................37 Uptake into the Marine Food Chain....................................................................................................... 39 Future Remediation Costs.......................................................................................................................41 Job Loss Costs......................................................................................................................................... 43 ALTERNATIVES TO OCEAN DUMPING ................................................................................................. 45 Ship Sales for Reuse ............................................................................................................................... 45 Ship Donation......................................................................................................................................... 45 Overseas Shipbreaking ............................................................................................................................47 Table 8: Overseas vs. Domestic Ship Recycling: 1970 – 1997 ........................................................... 48 Domestic Recycling ................................................................................................................................ 52 RECOMMENDATIONS ..............................................................................................................................57 Enforce the London Convention .............................................................................................................57 Amend the Marine Protection, Research and Sanctuaries Act ..............................................................57 End SINKEX: Revoke General Permit ....................................................................................................57 Enforce the Toxic Substances Control Act ............................................................................................. 59 Eliminate Double Standards .................................................................................................................. 59 Ratify the London Protocol and Invoke the Precautionary Principle ................................................... 59 Lead by Example: Honor the Waste Management Hierarchy............................................................... 60 CONCLUSION.............................................................................................................................................61 APPENDIX A................................................................................................................................................. i MARAD Scrapping Cost Estimates vs. Actual Costs 2001-2008.......................................................... i APPENDIX B ................................................................................................................................................iv Naval Vessels Disposed At Sea, 2000-2010.........................................................................................iv SOURCES ...................................................................................................................................................... i

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