Repetition – A word or phrase used more than once to emphasize an idea.
Coleridge’s line “Water, water everywhere”, which is repeated several times in
The Rime of the Ancient Mariner, serves to emphasize the frustration of a
situation where a man is dying of thirst while surrounded by water.
Resolution – the outcome of the crisis or turning point; the part of the plot from the crisis to the end of the story. It ordinarily carries the effect of inevitability or the fulfillment of fate, or a logical or artistic outcome of the circumstances of the crisis.
Rhetoric – the art of written prose composition, exclusive of poetry and speech. The term can also mean a skillful use of language or, sometimes, an artificial elegance of expression.
Rhetorical Question – a question a speaker or writer asks for dramatic or literary effect or which he intends to answer himself.
“Is life so dear, or peace so sweet, as to be purchased at the price of chains and slavery?”
Patrick Henry’s “Speech in the Virginia Convention.”
Rhyme – (also spelled Rime) – the recurrence of an identical vowel sound, usually at the end of a line, the consonant structure being different before the identical sounds in the two words. Internal Rhyme is the rhyme of a vowel sound in the middle of a line with one at the end.
“The fair breeze blew, the white foam flew.” Coleridge – The Rime of the Ancient Mariner
Rhyme Royal (named for one of its first users, James I of Scotland) consists of stanzas of seven iambic pentameter lines rhymed ababbcc (Chaucer’s “The Clerk’s Tale”, Masefield’s “The Dauber”).
Rhythm – the more or less regular recurrence of an accent or beat. In a longer piece of literature the term Emotional Rhythm is sometimes used to describe the rise and fall of emotional intensity. A skillful writer builds up, in a more or less regular pattern, the reader’s emotions and lets them subside (for they cannot be held long at an emotional pitch).
Romantic – a name applied to any literature that gives an artificial, fanciful, exaggerated, or extravagant view of life. It is recognizable through its reliance on happy-ever-after endings, coincidence, surprise, thrilling adventures, stock characters, and heroes and heroines who are too “good” and villains who are overly “bad”. There is little or no emphasis on inwardness nor on character development.
Romanticism – a general term having an extensive and complicated philosophical basis. Jean Jacques Rousseau, the eighteenth century French philosopher, is credited with being the father of the Romantic Movement. The opposite of Classicism, Romanticism is subjective and personal rather that restricted and detached, spontaneous and free rather than restricted and conventional, imaginative rather than reserved, simple rather than stately, warm and lyrical rather than cold and measured. It stresses the beauty of Nature and a belief in Nature as a source of human inspiration and emphasizes the simple dignity of the common man and the wonder to be found in simple everyday life. (Compare with Classicism.)
Rondeau (ron’ do; ron do’) – An Old French verse form ordinarily consisting of thirteen lines and an unrhymed refrain taken from the beginning of the first line. The rhymes and refrains are generally arranged aabbaaab refrain aabba.
“In Flanders fields the poppies blew
Between the crosses, row on row,
That mark our place; and in the sky
The larks, still bravely singing, fly
Scarce heard amid the guns below.
We are the Dead. Short days ago
We lived, felt dawn, saw sunset glow,
Loved and were loved, and now we lie
In Flanders fields.
Take up our quarrel with the foe:
To you from failing hands we throw
The torch; be yours so hold it high.