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a technical committee if the NCC feels additional advice is necessary.

Curriculum Development Centre

The CDC is responsible for the maintenance, transmission and renewal of the school-level curriculum and is also concerned with pre-primary education. (See below for further discussion of CDC).

The Secondary Leaving Certificate Board

The Secondary Leaving Certificate Board sets policies and makes decisions relating to the School-Leaving Cer- tificate (SLC), which are then implemented by the Office of the Controller of Examinations (OCE). A reformed SLC, with single subject certification is planned for July 2001. The courses leading to this examination are to be implemented from grade 9, beginning in July 1999.

The Secondary Education Development Centre

The Secondary Education Development Centre (SEDEC) is responsible for a range of in-service training activities at the secondary level. SEDEC operates through twenty- five secondary education development units at locations, which allow for national coverage. The training activities also support the work of the Curriculum Development Centre and the OCE.

Janak Educational Materials Centre

The Janak Educational Materials Centre (JEMC), operat- ing as a public limited company, produces and distributes school textbooks throughout Nepal. JEMC’s Board of Di- rectors is comprised of representatives from concerned ministries and organizations.

THE CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT CENTRE Responsibilities and activities

The CDC (see Figure 1) is responsible for the mainte- nance, transmission and renewal of the school education curriculum. The wide-ranging activities of the centre in- clude developing, revising and disseminating textbooks and teacher’s support materials. A programme of semi- nars and workshops supports these activities. CDC’s de- velopment and monitoring work is carried out by specialized curriculum subject units, advised by curricu- lum subject specialist committees. Subject units cover languages, science and maths, social studies, health and physical education. To support CDC’s activities, various studies and surveys are conducted on curriculum-related issues and problems. The activities of CDC give rise to a wide range of relationships with other institutions. The most important of these is with the teachers and student in schools, who are the immediate end-users of the centre’s products. CDC also incorporates a publishing unit.

The Publishing Unit (PU)

The PU (in collaboration with subject specialist units, their advisory subject specialist committees, subject ad- visers and consultants) sets textbook specifications. Ac-

cording to prescribed procedures, the PU also selects textbook writers on the basis of: subject knowledge, class- room experience and sample materials reviewed by teach- ers/subject experts. A PU staff member serves as the managing editor, and is responsible for briefing contract- ed writers and liaising closely with them to ensure quality and schedule controls, until the camera-ready copy goes to the printers. The PU manager also arranges distribution of the draft materials to be tested in schools and validated by teacher groups. The managing editor, unit specialist, sub- ject committee members, advisers and specialists all visit schools to collect comments which are subsequently re- layed to the writers.

Subject Advisory Committees

The role of these committees is to advise on the prepara- tion and revision of the curriculum, and the preparation, revision and evaluation of textbooks and teachers guides. The Curriculum Officers, as members of the committees, also participate in these activities and provide the secretar- iat that promotes the committee’s work. Sub-committees are established to carry out specialist developmental in- puts. The subject committees cover Nepali, English, sci- ence, mathematics, social studies, and health, population and environment (HPE).

Task Committees

Like the publishing unit, the task committees cut across the boundaries of the various specialist units. Examples are the formative assessment committee and the dissemi- nation committee. Task committees are formed to advise the cross-boundary projects managing officer on policy and operational matters.

DEVELOPMENTS IN THE DESIGN, IMPLEMENTATION AND FOLLOW-UP OF CURRICULUM REFORM

Aims of secondary education

The general aims of secondary education (framed within the national goals of education, see Figure 2) are to: pro- duce healthy citizens who are: familiar with the national tradition, culture, social environment, democratic values; able to use language effectively in daily life; aware of sci- entific issues; creative, co-operative, industrious; able to contribute to economic development.

The secondary curriculum

The lower secondary curriculum (grades 6, 7 and 8) and the secondary curriculum (grades 9 and 10) are construct- ed with core subjects and optional subjects. The five low- er secondary core subjects are Nepali, English, math, science and social studies. The six secondary core subjects are Nepali, English, math, science, social studies, health, population and environment (HPE).

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