FIGURE 2. Social studies curriculum
Objectives. There are twenty-eight general objectives list- ed in the grades 9 and 10 social studies curricula. Highly specific objectives are listed for grade 9 (twenty-seven ob- jectives) and grade 10 (twenty-nine objectives).
Abilities. On achieving the course objectives, students will be able to demonstrate a wide range of abilities. Some examples of the abilities associated with knowledge and understanding and practical abilities are as follows:
Ability 1: Knowledge and understanding.
Describing projects in different zones and develop- ment regions;
Describing the achievements of Nepal in the fields of education, health, transportation, telecommunica- tions, electricity and water supply;
Discussing the role of skilled manpower in the devel- opment of the infrastructure of Nepal;
Stating the role of international organizations in solv- ing social problems;
Explaining different climates and the elements that affect them;
Giving a short introduction to the geo-economic activities of continents;
Identifying the problems created by population growth and migration and finding out ways to partici- pate in solving them;
Describing the physical features of the Earth;
Examining the impact of landslides on the physical features of Nepal and participating in the task of avoiding them;
Listing the agricultural products grown in the various geographical areas.
Ability 2: Practical abilities.
Criteria. The new-style social studies textbook must be developed so that students can be thoroughly prepared to take the new SLC examination. The textbook must help them not only to understand the content of the course, but also to develop the necessary skills and ability to think crit- ically about the different topics. Thus, each chapter should have clearly thought-out learning outcomes. These will in- clude not only factual information for knowledge and un- derstanding, but will also include specific skills such as those outlined in the previous section. After studying this lesson the student will be able to:
interpret a bar chart; locate places of historical importance; present an argument in favour of a certain course of ac- tion; collect local data.
The earlier textbooks contained only factual information, followed by recall questions. To prepare for the new SLC examination, the new textbooks must present information in different forms (text, statistics, pictures, photographs, diagrams, graphs and charts, maps, newspaper items. source documents) and provide challenging questions to help students understand, interpret, analyze and evaluate the information. As 30% of the new SLC marks will be given for project- style work to be carried out during the year, the textbook must include many such activities; starting with simple tasks, and evolving to longer projects. This will mean that most of the material studied has a local component and thus is of relevance to the students. It will also mean that students can undertake genuine research, and gain practi- cal skills in investigating, analyzing and presentating their findings. It will also help them to work together co-opera- tively in groups. Such tasks are illustrated below.
3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.
Maintaining national dignity; Drawing a map of Nepal and filling in the main industrial centres and roads; Demonstrating models in class; Analyzing the data presented in charts; Locating historical sites on a map; Investigating the problems of population growth; Appreciating the contributions of our national heroes; Applying the knowledge of social studies for the good of society; Drawing a picture of the Himalayan region; . Recording the maximum rainfall of the month;
11. Designing a research proposal to find out about social evils.
EXAMPLES draw up a plan of your VDC, mark the water; prepare a poster or a talk to stop young people from ex- perimenting with drugs; survey the type and number of animals kept in the local community; write and perform a short historical drama; keep a record of local weather over a long period and prepare a suitable display, such as a bar chart or graph.
The students should be able to see what skills they are learning in each chapter and gain a sense of achievement and progress towards the SLC. This may be done with a summary of chapters or topics. The exercises given in the textbook will not only test knowledge and understanding, but will require analysis and evaluation of the information and well thought-out answers. They will also need to en- courage the practice of practical skills and abilities. This will provide practice for new-type questions on the SLC exam.