Conceptual Design Stage
It is estimated that at ~ 80 percent of a project’s life-cycle cost is locked in by the initial concept that is chosen.
In a similar manner, all benefits are locked in…
The conceptual design sets the theoretical limits.
The conceptual design has the least real-world losses quantified.
Therefore, there MUST be significant inherent advantages to avoid erosion of all the benefits.
“One can not figure to add margin and be assured an advantage over the existing concept, if there is no inherent, and thus .”