Figure 1. Timeline of HCI privacy research.
In the following sections, we describe the main research efforts and results in each of the subfields identified in Figure 1. The material is organized according to an ideal application development cycle, from understanding user needs, to designing the application, to evaluating it.
3.1 Understanding Users’ Privacy Preferences
We start by describing work on understanding the privacy preferences of individuals. As noted above, privacy preferences are determined by social context and are sometimes difficult to articulate. For example, the need for plausible deniability is evident in social relations , but participants of a survey may not admit it or be consciously aware of certain dynamics that are ingrained in one’s daily behavior. Consequently, privacy preferences and concerns can be difficult to generalize and should be probed with reference to a specific circumstance. One implication is that it can be misleading to take
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