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Table 1 (cont.)

Technique

Scope

Data Protection / Personal Privacy

Principled / Communitarian

Sample sizes

Pros

Cons

Interviews

Personal

10-50

March et al.

Mobile phones

Personal

Neutral

10-20

Rich data

Probes sensitive topics

Cost

Melenhorst

Ubiquitous computing

Personal

Neutral

44

Rich analysis

Requires demonstration

Cost

Experiments

Scientifically sound

Control

Cost

Difficult to reproduce realistic situations

Kindberg

Mobile payment systems trust

Personal

Neutral

24

Jensen

e-commerce

Data Protection

Neutral

175

Statistical significance

Case Studies

1-3

Reference to real systems

Insider access or extensive public literature search

Anecdotal

Anton

Airlines and Government

Data Protection

Principled

2

Esslinger

PKI in banks

Personal

Neutral

1

Participatory design (Muller et al.)

Project Management Groupware system

Personal

Principled

1

Buy-in of users

Rich analysis

Costly

Embedded in development

This kind of segmentation allows service providers to devise service improvements or marketing strategies. For example, both Ackerman et al. and Jensen et al. have attempted to characterize individual behavior on retail web sites based on Westin’s privacy classifications. Specifically, Jensen et al. found that while the purchasing decisions of those classified as pragmatists and unconcerned were affected by the presence of trust marks and privacy policies on web sites, fundamentalists’ decisions were not [169].

Culnan and Armstrong’s scenario-based survey also examined the propensity of people to disclose personal information in ecommerce settings [77]. The repeated-measures survey was administered by phone to one thousand individuals using two scenarios that involved the collection of personal information. In the first scenario, the researchers did not indicate that fair information practices would be employed, while in the second, they specified that the data collector would apply control and notification measures. In the first condition, people with a high degree of concern for privacy would disclose information

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