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Nevertheless, we believe that this type of exploratory research is important because many privacy issues are still not well understood, and many of our analytical tools still depend on inaccurate and unverified models of individuals’ behavior. We return on this point in the conclusion.

3.2.4 Participatory Design and Privacy

Privacy issues can take on a very different meaning within a workplace, where issues of trust, authority, and competition may arise in a way quite different quite different than with family and friends. Participatory design has been used as a way of understanding user needs in such environments, helping to address privacy concerns up front and increasing overall user acceptance of systems.

For example, Muller et al. investigated privacy and interpersonal competition issues in a collaborative project management system using participatory design [215]. They discovered that specific system features could have contradictory effects on privacy. For example, an alert feature could increase vulnerability to colleagues by letting colleagues set alerts based on one’s progress, while simultaneously protecting one from potential embarrassment by letting individuals add alerts based on other people’s alerts (e.g., “remind me about this project five days before the earliest alert set on it by anyone else.”). This observation is consistent with current sociological thinking, as mentioned earlier in Section 2.3.1 [29, 120].

Participatory design can help uncover and analyze privacy tensions which might go unnoticed at first glance, because representatives of the end-users are involved throughout the design process and can influence technical choices with their values and needs. Clearly, participatory design also carries ethical and political assumptions that may not be appropriate or applicable in all design contexts [274]. Perhaps due to this reason, we did not find many accounts of the use of participatory design for privacy-affecting applications. Consequently, practitioners should evaluate whether this approach can be carried out or not in their specific context.

3.2.5 Ethics and Privacy

Finally, we discuss ethical issues arising during the design and development of IT that may impact the privacy of stakeholders, including research participants and users of future technologies. Specifically, we focus on the problems inherent in the representation of user’s opinions, on informed consent of research subjects, and on the issue of deception of subjects.

Many organizations conducting R&D on IT have developed guidelines and procedures to preserve the privacy of research participants and users of prototypes. These guidelines respond to legislation or organizational policy and originate from a long-standing discussion on research ethics. For example, the US Federal Government has issued regulations requiring the protection of research participants’ privacy, including the confidentiality of collected data, informed consent procedures, and confidentiality of attribution [82].

Mackay discussed the ethical issues related to the use of videotaping techniques for usability studies and prototype evaluation [202]. Drawing on other fields such as medicine and psychology, Mackay suggests specific guidelines for how videos should

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