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Data Quality

Personal data should be relevant to the purposes for which they are to be used, and, to the extent necessary for those purposes, should be accurate, complete and kept up-to-date.

Purpose Specification

The purposes for which personal data are collected should be specified not later than at the time of data collection and the subsequent use limited to the fulfillment of those purposes or such others as are not incompatible with those purposes and as are specified on each occasion of change of purpose.

Use Limitation

Personal data should not be disclosed, made available or otherwise used […] except:

a) with the consent of the data subject; or

b) by the authority of law.

Security Safeguards

Personal data should be protected by reasonable security safeguards against such risks as loss or unauthorized access, destruction, use, modification or disclosure of data.


There should be a general policy of openness about developments, practices and policies with respect to personal data. Means should be readily available of establishing the existence and nature of personal data, and the main purposes of their use, as well as the identity and usual residence of the data controller.

Individual Participation

An individual should have the right:

a) to obtain from a data controller, or otherwise, confirmation of whether or not the data controller has data relating to him;

b) to have communicated to him, data relating to him within a reasonable time; at a charge, if any, that is not excessive; in a reasonable manner; and in a form that is readily intelligible to him;

c) to be given reasons if a request made under subparagraphs(a) and (b) is denied, and to be able to challenge such denial; and

d) to challenge data relating to him and, if the challenge is successful to have the data erased, rectified, completed or amended.


A data controll150er should be accountable for complying with measures which give effect to the principles stated above.

Table 4. Privacy Guidelines for Social Location Disclosure Applications and Services [157].



Flexible Replies

Users should be able to choose what the system discloses as a reply to a location request.

Support Denial

Communication media should support the ability to ignore requests.

Support Simple Evasion

Designs should include the ability of signaling “busy” as a baseline evasive reply.

Don’t Start With Automation

Automatic functions that communicate on behalf of the user should not be introduced by default, but only when a real need arises.

Support Deception

Communication media should support the ability to deceive in the reply.

Start with Person-to-Person Communication

Social mobile applications should support person-to-person communication before attempting group communication.

Provide Status / Away Messages

Provide a way of signaling availability status.

Operators Should Avoid Handling User Data

Social location disclosure applications should not be provided by centralized services.

Guidelines for Ubiquitous Computing and Location-Based Services

In addition to general principles, specific guidelines have also been proposed for more limited application domains. For example, Lederer et al. [196] observed that, in the context of ubiquitous computing applications, successful designs must:

make both potential and actual information flows visible,

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