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Table 5. Privacy Pre-Patterns [61]

Design Pattern


Fair Information Practices

The Fair Information Practices are a set of privacy guidelines for companies and organizations for managing the personal information of individuals.

Respecting Social Organizations

If [members of] the organization […] [do] not trust and respect one another, then the more intimate the technology, the more problems there will likely be.

Building Trust and Credibility

Trust and credibility are the foundation for an ongoing relationship.

Reasonable Level of Control

Curtains provide a simple form of control for maintaining one’s privacy while at home.

Appropriate Privacy Feedback

Appropriate feedback loops are needed to help ensure people understand what data is being collected and who can see that data.

Privacy-Sensitive Architectures

Just as the architecture of a building can influence how it is perceived and used, the architecture of a ubiquitous computing system can influence how people’s perceptions of privacy, and consequently, how they use the system.

Partial Identification

Rather than requiring precise identity, systems could just know that there is “a person” or “a person that has used this system before.”

Physical Privacy Zones

People need places where they feel that they are free from being monitored.

Blurred Personal Data

[…] Users can select the level of location information disclosed to web sites, potentially on a page by page basis.

Limited Access to Personal Data

One way of managing your privacy with others is by limiting who can see what about you.

Invisible Mode

Invisible mode is a simple and useful interaction for hiding from all others.

Limited Data Retention

Sensitive personal information, such as one’s location and activity, should only be kept as long as needed and no longer.

Notification on Access of Personal Data

AT&T Wireless’ Find Friends service notifies your friend if you ask for her location.

Privacy Mirrors

Privacy mirrors provide useful feedback to users by reflecting what the system currently knows about them.

Keeping Personal Data on Personal Devices

One way of managing privacy concerns is to store and present personal data on a personal device owned by the user.

The lack of an established design practice and knowledge is an inherent problem with applying design patterns to privacy-sensitive applications. Chung et al. acknowledged that design patterns may be premature in the ubicomp domain. An argument could be made that in situations of exploratory and uncertain design, only thorough analysis on a case-by-case basis can provide strong arguments for an application’s acceptability.

3.5.2 Process Frameworks

While guidelines are ready-made parcels of analysis and solutions to common problems, the process frameworks described in this section provide guidance to designers on how to approach the analysis and design of privacy-sensitive IT applications.

Questions – Options – Criteria

Media spaces combine audio, video, and computer networking technology to provide a rich communicative environment for collaboration (see Sections 3.1.5 and 3.2.6). Bellotti and Sellen published early work on privacy in the context of video media spaces, based in

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