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lower in most years, between Sw F 470 and 540 million (Table IV.1). Average tariffs are 37.8% on edible vegetables (HS code 07), reaching 1,256% on lettuce, and 12.9% on edible fruit and nuts (HS code 08), with a maximum of 258% on fresh grapes. Fresh and frozen vegetables, various types of fruit, fruit for cider, grapes, and seed-fruit products are subject to tariff quotas (Table IV.4). Producers of high protein peas and field beans receive a subsidy proportionate to the area under cultivation (Chapter III(4)(i)). Imports of edible vegetables amounted to US$553 million in 2007, while exports were US$4.5 million. Imports of fruits and nuts were US$870 million, whereas exports amounted to US$20.3 million.
(e) Forestry and logging, and fisheries
About one third of Switzerland is covered by forests; two thirds of these are located in the Alps. Switzerland's forestry policy is based on the principles of protection against natural disaster, biological diversity, and efficient use of forest resources. The Forests Law of 1991 (RS 921.0) is the main legal instrument in the subsector. Under the law, subsidies may be provided to forestry activities for measures such as tending and hauling, and indemnities may be paid for, inter alia, replanting or protection of valley areas against avalanches. Federal financial assistance totalled Sw F 173 million in 2006 and Sw F 149 million in 2007. Since 2008, federal subsidies are paid for the achievement of specific ecosystem services, such as protection against natural hazards or biological diversity. The average tariff on forestry and logging products is 0.5%. Exports of forestry and logging products (ISIC code 12) amounted to US$201 million in 2007, and imports to US$90 million.
Limited to the bigger lakes, fishing is not developed in Switzerland and Liechtenstein. In 2007, imports of (unprocessed) fishing products (ISIC code 13) were US$134 million, and imports of (processed) fish products (ISIC code 3114) amounted to US$468 million. The average tariff is 0.2% on both product categories.
(i) Major features
The Swiss Federal Office of Energy formulates policies for the energy sector.13 In February 2007, the Federal Council adopted a new Energy Strategy. With a view to securing energy supply and reducing CO2 emissions, the Strategy is based on four pillars: (i) increased energy efficiency, through energy savings and use of new technologies; (ii) increased reliance on renewable energies; (iii) accelerated procedures for the construction of large energy infrastructure (grids, gas power stations) as a measure to avoid medium-term supply shortages; and (iv) increased international cooperation, in particular with the European Communities and other energy-producing countries. This is to ensure future supply security and allow Switzerland's participation in the European trade in CO2 certificates (pollution rights).
Switzerland and Liechtenstein have not made any GATS commitment with respect to energy services per se. However, under "Business services", both Switzerland and Liechtenstein have undertaken specific commitments on "Services incidental to mining, excluding prospecting, surveying, exploration and exploitation (part of CPC 883 and part of 5115)".14 Under the GATT, import duties have not been bound on gas, petroleum, and related products.
13 Swiss Federal Office of Energy online information. Viewed at: http://www.swiss-energy.ch.
14 WTO documents GATS/SC/83 and GATS/SC/83A, 15 April 1994.