Switzerland and LiechtensteinWT/TPR/S/208 Page 129
qualification or business establishment. In addition, carriers need a special licence issued by the OTT for international transport in the EEA. Liechtenstein is included in most bilateral transport agreements concluded by Switzerland. The agreements normally contain a "Liechtenstein clause" extending the provisions to Liechtenstein.
In 2007, the tourism subsector generated foreign exchange worth Sw F 14.6 billion (Table IV.14), while Swiss tourist spending abroad amounted to Sw F 11.5 billion. Grisons and Berne received the largest number of tourists, followed by the Valais and Zurich. While the largest number of tourists come from Germany, the United Kingdom, and the United States, strong increases have been recorded for visitors from China and Russia.
At federal level, the main legislation for the tourism subsector comprises: the Tourism Law of 1995, the Law to Promote Innovation and Cooperation in Tourism of 1997, and the Hotel Law of 2003.93 In addition, all cantons except Aargau and Zurich have their own tourism legislation. The "clause du besoin", which regulated the cantons' licensing of the supply of restaurant services94, has been abandoned since 2004, with a grace period of ten years. It is currently applied only in the canton of Basel-Land. By 2014, the location and operation of restaurants should be fully market determined. Cantonal legislation for tour guides has been revised, opening the required tests to foreigners, who may operate independently. Federal legislation restricts the acquisition of real estate (in Switzerland) by non-Swiss persons domiciled abroad and by non-EEA nationals domiciled in Switzerland.95
Swiss tourism indicators, 2001-07
Hotel capacity (beds)
Room occupancy (%)
Bed occupancy (%)
Tourism receipts (Sw F million)
aSince 2003, figures include consumption expenditure by people granted short-term residence permits (less than four months).
Source:Information provided by the Swiss authorities.
Switzerland Tourism, a public corporation, is in charge of marketing and promotional activities; its annual budget is some Sw F 73 million of which Sw F 46 million comes from the federal budget. Innotour is a programme of the State Secretariat for Economic Affairs to improve the quality of and promote innovation in Switzerland's tourism subsector. Between 2003 and 2007, Sw F 28 million were spent on a total of 60 projects in areas such as quality management
93 RS 935.12.
94 Article 196, Chapter 7, of the Federal Constitution. The clause was originally designed to safeguard existing restaurants; licensing criteria include the number of restaurants in the neighbourhood and population density.
95 Federal Office of Justice (2005).