concentrations and other affected economic activities. Sites should be rejected where there are severe pollution impacts to local communities from:
the sheer size of local population concentrations and the impact on human health
high levels of existing background pollution of the atmosphere and/or water, the existence of micro-climate conditions with frequent temperature inversions.
Displacement of existing population
Serious consideration must be given to the issues and practical problems involved with any relocation of population occupying the site. Where the clearance of existing settlements is involved it is necessary to investigate where such displaced persons will go. It may be that the removal of people will result in the unanticipated deterioration of the environment elsewhere, as the site users, particularly if they are squatters, find new sites.
Any resettlement should be done in accordance with proper standards. If displacement is on a large scale, a full environmental impact of the wider effects of resettlement on a new site will be necessary. If resettlement is likely to lead to increased densities and pressures on existing services in the immediate urban area, then provision must be made for infrastructure to meet the needs of such increased densities. The reader is referred to Chapter 3 of World Bank EIA Guidelines "Involuntary Resettlement and Induced Development" for a fuller discussion of the issues involved.
Destruction of resources of historic or cultural significance
Sites and areas of importance from an historic or cultural viewpoint need to be identified in the same way as is the case for sites in sensitive and critical areas. Significant sites such as those at Taxila and Mohenjo Daro should be fully protected and they should be particularly protected from any industrial emissions.
For some sites of historic and/or cultural value, it is may possible to set aside the land required to preserve the particular site and zone the land accordingly. The project design may then be adapted to include the historic or cultural resource.
Availability of existing infrastructure and services
The availability of existing services to the site must be investigated. Supply of water, gas and electricity may be deficient and transportation links may also be inadequate. The absence of institutions for communication and accident response may make hazard management impossible at a particular site. This may be particularly true when it is necessary to transport hazardous and explosive material through existing residential areas.
Water may be a constraint and if new water supply schemes are required to enable a new development to proceed, the costs and environmental impacts of the new water supply scheme must be investigated.
Mitigation needs the involvement of economic and physical planning authorities to ensure additional infrastructure and service requirements through Federal and Provincial programmes. Existing services should be upgraded where possible to avoid strain upon the existing user network. This will ensure that safety services are in place to cope with industrial accidents and to facilitate emergency response plans.
A set of criteria for site selection can be adopted bearing in mind some of the impacts and mitigation discussed above. It is recommended that the following locations are automatically avoided in the consideration of alternative sites for industrial estates:
prime agricultural land,