provision of greenbelt buffer zones around the perimeter of a site; there should be at least 500 metres between an industrial estate and any existing residential areas (* see note below),
the detailed design of the facility should adapt to the landscape, so that scenic features are not altered by the development
provision of land centrally located in the industrial estate for informal eating places to establish to provide for workers needs
Note: This criteria is taken from the National Reference Manual on Planning and
Infrastructure Standards (NRMPIS) issued in 1986 by the then Ministry of Housing and Works Urban Affairs Division which discuss detailed layout considerations (see Appendix II).
Construction is the time when impact can be most severely felt and when the project site is particularly vulnerable to environmental disturbance. The reader is referred to ADB Environmental Guidelines Annex III/1 “Environmental Constraints for Projects Involving Major Construction Operations” for a full list of considerations which should be taken into consideration at this stage of the project. The main factors to bear in mind are as follows:
Run off erosion during rains from unprotected excavated areas resulting in excessive soil erosion
Dangers to workers from accidents, hazardous materials, quarrying, communicable disease and emissions
Local flooding from watering of excavations, flushing of pipes etc.
Loss or degradation of vegetation from unnecessary removal or mechanical damage,
Disruption of local traffic patterns, congestion and blocking of access to adjoining activities.
Mitigation during the construction stage must be carefully planned and measures to minimise impacts must be tied to monitoring and management plans. Proper phasing of activities can help reduce disruption and degradation.
Temporary erosion control plans must be put in place; such plans should include:
temporary silt fencing
temporary ponding or silt trap basins,
short term seeding or mulching of exposed soil areas and particularly on sloping land,
limitation of access for heavy machinery and the storage of materials to avoid soil compaction.
Topsoil must be properly stripped and stored for future use and not illegally removed from site.
Areas can be protected by temporary fencing and limitation of access for heavy machinery and material storage. This will help protect vegetation and avoid exposing larger areas to erosion and run off risks.
Operation stage issues