1.3. Linkages procedures
Policy decision, legislation and procedures in other areas will be relevant in considering and dealing with the environmental impacts for industrial estates. The main considerations are in the following areas:
economic planning policy decisions,
physical planning - zoning and planning regulations at the site selection and operation stage,
occupational health for the workers in industrial units and involved in any utilities and services at the construction and operational stages of the project.
Major industrial plants, such as steelworks, cement factories, power stations, hazardous chemical plants and the like are not intended to be located within an industrial estate. Industrial estates are established for smaller scale groupings of similar industries, often comprising light and service industries.
Economic and physical planning
Industrial sites are often "preselected" with little reference to environmental issues. Preselection is often undertaken as part of economic policies at Federal level. Industrial sites have for instance been earmarked at junctions along the new Islamabad - Lahore motorway as part of industrial development policy.
Physical planning is a Provincial function and the Provinces have developed their own Ordinances which allow for the creation of plans, planning controls and Building Regulations. Regional plans, master plans and site development schemes have been produced for certain Municipalities and land may have been set aside (preselected) for industrial development in such plans. For instance, as at 1997 all towns in Punjab with populations over 50,000 have master plans each with areas defined for industrial use. Reference should be made to the relevant Provincial Physical Planning authority for existing physical plans.
Where sites are identified as part of the planning and zoning process there may be no need for additional siting analysis and the studies required may be limited to particular issues, such as the need to pretreat a plant's proposed wastewater. Care should be taken to examine what environmental criteria have been taken into consideration in zoning land. In cases where Master plans have been prepared and approved it is likely that economic and engineering feasibility criteria alone have been employed to earmark land for industrial development. To ensure that environmental objectives are met an environmental analysis of possible sites may have to be conducted anyway.
In terms of the reports required to satisfy Government requirements, the same project description material can be used in environmental reports as is used in the submission for physical planning. The town planning and detailed subdivision plans required for physical planning approval will be particularly helpful in identifying the level of spatial impacts in the environmental report.
The design of industrial estates is undertaken by the relevant Development Authority or Small Scale Industries Board in the Province. Approval is required through the Department responsible for the P&D process in the Provinces before the scheme can be adopted in the Provincial development program. Environmental assessment can be incorporated in the earliest stages of this planning process.