There are various labour laws and rules which affect the operation of individual industrial establishments in Pakistan. The Factory Act 1934 covers such areas as health, safety, daily hours of work and overtime. There are Federal rules covering different hazardous occupations under the following categories - (1) Aerated waters, (2) Cellulose Sodium Spraying, (3) Chromium, (4) Lead, (5) Miscellaneous, (6) Petrol Gas Generating Plant, (7) Rubber, (8) Sand Blasting and (9) Sodium & Potassium Bichromate.
Factory rules have also been put in place at the Provincial level. NWFP, for instance, has enacted the Factory Rules 1975 and the Canteen Rules 1979. The former provides for shelters (rest rooms) for industries with more than 150 workers and rooms for child care where more than 50 females are employed. The Canteen Rules require canteen facilities where 250 workers are employed. The reader is referred to the Labour Code of Pakistan, Labour Laws & Rules of Pakistan with Commentary, 1994 issued by the Bureau of Labour Publications for full coverage of the relevant Federal and Provincial laws, rules and regulations.
The laws and rules for occupational health and safety cover separate factory establishments; the existing legislation is comprehensive and Provincial Factory Inspectors have wide discretionary powers. In practice implementation is weak and penalties for non-compliance are nominal having not been revised since the Factory Act was first put in place in 1934. Industrial estates have many industrial operations, some of which may be very labour intensive. This can mean that an industrial estate has many thousands of workers and consideration has to be given to the provision of infrastructure on a wider scale than individual factories. The relationship with town planning design and the need to provide land for shops and eating areas is discussed later.
ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ISSUES
The concentration of numerous potential sources of pollution at one site inevitably raises the possibility of severe impacts and environmental damage. This Chapter discusses some of the general issues involved; Chapter 3 then goes on to consider the specific negative impacts of the various stages of the project.
Area of Influence
The impact upon immediate land uses around a site are discussed in Section 3.2.4. The area that may be impacted by industrial uses can, however, extend well beyond the site of the industrial estate and its immediate vicinity. The area of influence and the severity of impact will depend on the type of industrial facilities, the discharges involved and the receiving environment (plant, animal and human communities). In this regard, factors which must be taken into consideration in looking at site selection include:
the effects on water availability to other users at the point of withdrawal and on receiving water quality for some distance downstream of the point of discharge.
the characteristics of the natural resources and land uses in the airshed for long distances downwind,
the impacts which will occur along transportation corridors,
the characteristics of water catchment and airsheds of new developments where such developments are required to support the new industrial estate or are an induced development (see 2.4 below) e.g. resettlement sites, workers