special training of RR teachers, the early identification and special instructional treatment
that RR provides, and the allocation of teachers’ time to work individually with the
lowest performing first-grade children be justified as a viable and appropriate use of
valuable school resources?
How might the costs of RR be reduced?
Develop a more comprehensive model that involves small-group instruction instead of a
tutorial. Some group-oriented early interventions, including some based on RR
procedures, appear promising (Hiebert, Colt, Catto, & Gury, 1992; Pinnell, Lyons,
Deford, Bryk, & Seltzer, 1994; Taylor, Short, Frye & Shearer, 1992). These attempts
have focused on three or four children at a time, reducing the costs of intervention by 50
Scientifically based research on Reading
In 1997 the U.S. Congress directed a national panel be convened to review and
evaluate research on the effectiveness of various approaches for teaching children to read.
The National Reading Panel (NRP) composed of 14 individuals was formed. The
National Reading Panel Report (2000) reviewed 100,000 studies and identified those
studies that came from a refereed journal and were published in English. The NRP
developed an objective research review methodology, then applied this methodology to
undertake comprehensive, formal, evidence-based analyses of the experimental and
quasi-experimental research literature relevant to a set of selected topics judged to be of
central importance in teaching children to read. An examination of a variety of public
databases revealed approximately 100,000 research studies on reading had been
published since 1966, with perhaps another 15,000 appearing before that time. These