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special training of RR teachers, the early identification and special instructional treatment

that RR provides, and the allocation of teachers’ time to work individually with the

lowest performing first-grade children be justified as a viable and appropriate use of

valuable school resources?

How might the costs of RR be reduced?

Develop a more comprehensive model that involves small-group instruction instead of a

tutorial. Some group-oriented early interventions, including some based on RR

procedures, appear promising (Hiebert, Colt, Catto, & Gury, 1992; Pinnell, Lyons,

Deford, Bryk, & Seltzer, 1994; Taylor, Short, Frye & Shearer, 1992). These attempts

have focused on three or four children at a time, reducing the costs of intervention by 50

  • 75%.

Scientifically based research on Reading

In 1997 the U.S. Congress directed a national panel be convened to review and

evaluate research on the effectiveness of various approaches for teaching children to read.

The National Reading Panel (NRP) composed of 14 individuals was formed. The

National Reading Panel Report (2000) reviewed 100,000 studies and identified those

studies that came from a refereed journal and were published in English. The NRP

developed an objective research review methodology, then applied this methodology to

undertake comprehensive, formal, evidence-based analyses of the experimental and

quasi-experimental research literature relevant to a set of selected topics judged to be of

central importance in teaching children to read. An examination of a variety of public

databases revealed approximately 100,000 research studies on reading had been

published since 1966, with perhaps another 15,000 appearing before that time. These

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