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15

at-risk students who enter school with very little letter knowledge or phonemic

awareness.

Results indicated phonics helped low and middle SES readers, younger students at

risk for reading disability (RD) and older students with RD, but it did not help low

achieving readers that included students with cognitive limitations. Delivering instruction

to small groups and classes was not less effective than tutoring. Researchers determined

that systematic phonics instruction proved effective and should be implemented as part of

literacy programs to teach beginning reading as well as to prevent and re-mediate reading

difficulties.

Some of the studies in the database examined the effectiveness of enriching whole

language instruction with systematic phonics. Results were positive and suggest the

importance of integrating systematic phonics instruction into whole language approaches

rather than eliminating whole language from beginning reading instruction.

These facts should persuade educators and the public that systematic phonics instruction

is a valuable part of a successful classroom reading program. The findings were to

illuminate the conditions that may make phonics instruction especially effective.

In a meta-analysis of instructional studies employed with students having LD,

Swanson (2000) observed significantly larger effect sizes on reading outcomes when

direct skills instruction was combined with comprehension strategy instruction than when

each word was administered separately to students. By emphasizing all of the processes

that contribute to growth in reading in reading, teachers will have the best change of

making every child a reader.

Scientifically based research on Reading Recovery

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