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grade, one in second and one in third grade. Another study conducted at Ohio State

University (Pinnell, 1989) selected children from six urban schools (n=55) with high

proportions of low-income students. A comparison classroom (n=55) was randomly

selected to determine whether RR had been effectively implemented and what

organizational arrangements the program required. Evidence from the first 3 years of

implementation indicated that RR had a positive outcome for children initially

determined to be at risk of failure in reading. 2/3 or more of the children who received a

full program in RR made accelerated progress and performed within the average range

for their classes. Children retained their gains and continued to make progress at least two

years after the intervention. It must be noted that bias is an issue in both of these studies

by the mere fact that the former study was researched by the RR lead teachers, and the

latter was researched by a leading proponent of RR in the U.S.

An eight year Longitudinal Analysis of Reading Recovery (1993-2000) provided

by the Sioux Falls School District (Homan, 2002) found that approximately 80% of the

discontinued RR students continue to perform at or above the average range of

performance in reading as they progress through the grade levels as measured by the

Stanford Achievement Test Nine Edition. A year-to-year longitudinal analysis of the

reading scores of forty-five students (SAT-9) who successfully completed the RR

services during the 1993-94 school year who are currently enrolled in the SFSD school

district revealed an overall upward trend in reading performance. The students in 5th

grade scored on average at 82, 6th grade at 86.5, 7th grade 85.2 and 9th grade 90.9. It is

not clear in the report what scores are expected for these grades. The details of how many

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