Specific Systems of Treatment
Dr. Ivy had to do something; the patients needed help, and soon there would be no more Krebiozen. He cared nothing for politics, salaries, or reputation; the patients must be helped, or they would die!
Durovic recognized that Ivy was one of his only true friends; but he felt that Duga, in Argentina, owned the copyright on Krebiozen. Certain that anyone could figure out the process, Ivy set about to do just that.
Actually, the procedure was not difficult. With the help of a friend, Paul Joost of Marengo, Illi- nois (a dog food manufacturer who let Ivy obtain samples from his horses), Ivy initially proved that blood from any horse could be used to produce Krebiozen! —not just the sick ones!
Another friend, Howard Hays, offered to fund the entire venture of obtaining the substance. Joost purchased 40 horses for Dr. Ivy and put them on his farm in Marengo.
tracted. Testing it on mice, it significantly retarded the development of cancer in mice, bred to de- velop and always die of cancer.
Testing the substance on six far-advanced can- cer patients, half of them were benefited to a marked degree. One woman with cancer of the breast with widespread metastases, became can- cer-free and symptom-free and remained so.
Amid the harassment, the extraction of Krebiozen from horses and the treatment of can- cer continued. Gradually, with the passing of years, a nice collection of case records of Krebiozen had been accumulating; and Ivy and Durovic had hoped that, eventually, enough data would be amassed to prove Krebiozen to be worthwhile.
Then, on June 7, 1963, the new Kefauver drug law went into effect. Enacted in the aftermath of the thalidomide crisis, the pregnancy tranquilizer which caused dreadful birth deformities, it zeroed in on experimental drugs.
One of the complaints of the critics was that the substance was “secret” or “nonexistent,” and that it could not be produced. Ivy determined to prove them wrong, as well as obtain the substance for the patients.
The official position was that Krebiozen was worthless, yet now the opposition set out to make sure no Krebiozen would be obtained from those horses.
Joost was told, by an official of the Illinois State Department of Agriculture, that the horses which were being experimented with, could not thereaf- ter be sold for food—even dog food. This would really hurt Joost’s business income.
Yet the horses were treated with “killed” ac- tinomyces bovis (lumpy jaw), and the state had always routinely allowed horses with active cases of lumpy jaw to be sold for human consumption.
Then Joost was told, by rendering plants, that they would no longer accept the animals. Then he was called to appear before the Illinois State Di- rector of Agriculture to answer a list of “fifty com- plaints” for various violations. He was told that he had broken “all the laws and regulations” of the Division of Foods, Dairies, and Standards of the State of Illinois. On and on it went.
It was at this time that Joost’s associate, Burnside, received an anonymous telephone call. “Get Joost to get rid of those plugs and all your troubles will be over. I know what I’m talking about.” Then the line went dead.
Much, much more could be said. As the weeks of harassment continued, the researchers were finding that the substance was eliminating can- cers on the horses’ hoofs. A brownish-white sub- stance, which resembled Krebiozen, was ex-
Immediately, the FDA descended on Dr. Durovic with repeated investigations. After 48 of them, Durovic gave up and withdrew his drug ap- plication and filed suit against the FDA, to stop the harassment. Withdrawal of the new drug au- tomatically stopped interstate shipments of Kre- biozen, so cancer patients taking the drug had to come to Illinois. Fearful of what was going to hap- pen next, they organized themselves into an orga- nization, called Cancer Survivors on Krebiozen. Then they petitioned Congress, held rallies in vari- ous cities and a March on Washington, and pick- eted the White House.
On September 7, 1963, the FDA announced that Krebiozen was nothing but creatine, a fairly common body chemical which was useless against cancer.
At the same time, it announced that it was con- sidering criminal charges against Durovic and Ivy.
On October 16, at a large press conference, HEW special assistant announced that Krebiozen’s records on 504 patients, by several hundred doc- tors, proved it was utterly worthless.
Within a week or two, a National Congress on Quackery was held, during which the president of the AMA denounced Krebiozen as “the greatest fraud of the 20th century.”
Amid all the fighting and counter-fighting, Senator Paul H. Douglas of Illinois stood up in defense of Krebiozen. He had his chief assistant, Howard Shuman, organize a careful appraisal of the FDA and NCI findings. Shuman was an expert at getting what he wanted; and he managed to ob- tain confidential FDA interoffice memoranda, by scientists, on Krebiozen. Shuman also contacted the independent laboratories which had for years