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providing the teacher with examples of sociolinguistic use of language in the Asian context.

3. Methodology: Transmission and collaboration

The course was taught in simple English with some Japanese. Students were encouraged to use their preferred language in group and pair activities and discussions, meaning that Japanese and Chinese were not regarded as forbidden languages in the classroom. The language of lecturing, although primarily English, frequently switched between Japanese, English and Chinese for subsequent group and pair work among students and Japanese or English for interaction with the teacher. The purpose of this multilingual approach, often manifesting itself in code-switching between languages, was to lower the anxiety of communication with the teacher in a foreign language. Although the objective of the course was to increase awareness of sociolinguistics, the by-product of this process could be argued as one which had the potential to improve student to student English communication skills.

Following this content-based, rather than linguistic, objective, much emphasis was placed on student collaboration. This is fundamentally what I, the teacher, perceived as having carried over from EFL training and practice. It was a transfer of beliefs about instruction (or perhaps better expressed, the construction of knowledge) from EFL into content-based teaching which focuses on the students not simply as recipients of knowledge, but as co-constructors. This is taken from my experiences in multi-level EFL classes where student elicitation of lexis and grammar and the exchange and student collaboration to negotiate meaning are standard practice. These EFL-influences manifested themselves in the following ways: 1. After teacher content-matter transmission: The lesson was staged so there were regular pauses for recapping (about every 10-15 minutes), firstly by the teacher and then by students in the language of their choice. The initial teacher-led recapping entailed a highlighting of key concepts and lexical items. The following student to student summarizing was essentially a repeat of the teacher recap session in which students compared notes and summarized the last 10-15 minutes of instruction to each other in pairs or threes. Such recap sessions were perhaps, though to be fair not exclusively, seen to part of the sensitivity of EFL teachers towards the linguistic


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