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91. p. 417–8: Furthermore, the measurement at Mauna Loa is by infra-red analysis and some o f t h e i c e c o r e m e a s u r e m e n t s o f C O 2 i n t r a p p e d a i r w e r e b y g a s c h r o m a t o g r a p h y . E x a c t l y There are two techniques, IRG and GC, with good precision and which agree with each other,21 and a third (chemical) technique with inherently lower precision which requires great experimental skill to achieve accuracy. .

9 2 . p . 4 1 8 : l a n d - d e r i v e d a i r b l o w i n g a c r o s s t h e s e a l o s e s a b o u t 1 0 p p m o f i t s C O 2 a s t h e C O 2

dissolves in the oceans. due to vertical mixing.

High-CO2 air from over land often has the concentration drop more realistic estimate of how much drop can be caused by the

oceans (over large areas) is obtained by comparing measurements of CO2 at Cape Grim Tasmania which, when measured in air coming off the ocean averaged about 1 ppm lower

than air measured by CSIRO on flights over Bass Strait.

93. p. 419: The lowest figure measured since 1812, the 270 ppm figure, is taken as the pre-industrialisation yardstick. The IPCC want it both ways. They are prepared to use the lowest determination by the Pettenkofer method as a yardstick yet do not acknowledge P e t t e n k o f e r m e t h o d m e a s u r e m e n t s s h o w i n g C O 2 c o n c e n t r a t i o n s f a r h i g h e r t h a n n o w m a n times since 1812. The IPCC does not use 270 ppm as the pre-industrial CO2 concentra- tion. The value used is 280 ppm. In the various WG1 reports, see SPM table 1 in 1990, technical summary (TS) table 1 in S R, TS table 1 in T R, and page 2 in SPM of R4. This number is based in measurements of air in ice bubbles (mainly using IR techniques) and excluding anomalously low values from the time of the Little Ice ge. For ice cores, the volume of air available is too small to use the less precise chemical (Pettenkofer) method. y

9 4 . p . 4 2 1 : C O 2 m o l e c u l e s w i l l b e r e m o v e d f a s t f r o m t h e a t m o s p h e r e t o b e a d s o r b e d i another reservoir — inability to distinguish ‘adsorbed’ from ‘absorbed’ yet again — see item 74. n

95. p. 421: For CO2, The IPCC asserts that the lifetime is 50–200 years. The IPCC has been criticised because the lifetime is not defined. In reality the IPCC (1990) says in the SPM T h e w a y i n w h i c h C O 2 i s a b s o r b e d b y t h e o c e a n s a n d b i o s p h e r e i s n o t s i m p l e a n d a s i n g l e n u m b e r c a n n o t b e g i v e n a n d i n t h e f o o t n o t e t o t a b l e 1 : T h e l i f e t i m e o f C O 2 i s g i v e n i n t h e t a b l e i s a r o u g h i n d i c a t i o n o f t h e t i m e i t w o u l d t a k e C O 2 c o n c e n t r a t i o n s t o a d j to changes in emissions. (see section 1.2.1 for further details), with section 1.2.1 stating u s t T h e t u r n o v e r t i m e o f C O 2 i n t h e a t m o s p h e r e , m e a s u r e d a s t h e r a t i o o f c o n t e n t t o t h e fl through it is about 4 years. ... This short time scale must not be confused with the time u x e s i t t a k e s f o r t h e a t m o s p h e r i c C O 2 l e v e l t o a d j u s t t o a n e w e q u i l i b r i u m o f s o u r c e s o r change. s i n k s

9 6 . p . 4 2 2 : C a l c u l a t i o n s o f t h e l i f e t i m e o f a t m o s p h e r i c C O 2 b a s e d o n n a t u r a l C 1 4 g i v e l i f e t i m values of 3 to 25 years (18 separate studies), dilution of the atmosphere from fossil fuel burning a lifetime of 2 to 7 years (two separate studies), atomic bomb C14 lifetime value of 2 to more than 10 years (12 separate studies) . . . . This is referenced by footnote 2117 e

21 n additional technique based on single-line spectroscopy is becoming increasingly important — Eighth In- ternational Conference on Carbon Dioxide, and associated WMO experts’ meeting.

19

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