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Ian Plimer’s ‘Heaven + Earth’ — Checking the Claims - page 45 / 64





45 / 64


Retti-Shati et al. [1998] give a record from Mt Kenya. This shows a warm period (approx

100 BC to 500 temperatures.

D) relative to earlier and later times,

but is not calibrated to present


On the basis of seal distributions, Hall et al. (2006) identify various warm periods: ’in-

cluding a previously unrecognized period from 1,100 to 2,300 period spans both Plimer’s Roman warming and the Dark temperature estimates.

14C yr B.P.’ i.e. their warm ges, but do not give actual

Thus as noted in item 19, none of the primary literature cited by Plimer in this section pro- vides any temperature estimates anywhere to support the statement emperatures in the Roman w a r m i n g w e r e 2 t o 6 C w a r m e r t h a n t o d a y . m a d e o n p . 5 9 . S i m i l a r l y , a s n o t e d i n i t e m 1 2 3 , t h references cited on p. 490 for temperatures 3C warmer do not support such a claim. e

Dark ges

224 Reference 224 [Baillie, 1994] considers only a decadal scale cooling, commonly associ- ated with a possible 546 D volcanic eruption, noting issues such as the longer duration implying the possibility of multiple eruptions, c.f. the absence of acidity signals in ice cores.

231 Reference 231 [Reyes et al., 2006] describes expansion of US glaciers, but for many the

expansion began as early as 200 D. 232 Footnote 232 references the paper by Hodell et al. [1995]

. The paper addresses arid-

ity rather than temperature. The dry period associated with Mayan collapse was 800– 1000 D (spanning Plimer’s ‘Dark ge’ and ’MWP’).


This study of sediments [Haug et al., 2003] notes the same dry period as Hodell et al.

[1995] and notes that the Mayan expansion over the first half of Plimer’s ‘terrible’ Dark

was over the ge period.








s noted above [Grove, 1988] gives only one (Central England) temperature series and does not support the claim of ‘widespread’ for which it was cited.

240 The Broecker [2001] paper discussed above, is an overview rather than a detailed analysis of particular temperatures. Plimer cites it in respect of California ‘enjoying warm times’. The actual words in Broecker’s paper are ‘late in the Medieval Warm Period, California experienced several decade-long periods of profound drought.’ (Broecker is citing [Stine, 1994], Plimer’s reference 283.)

245 The work by Hormes et al. [2001] documents eight periods of Holocene glacial recession

in the Swiss

lps, the most recent being 1530–1170 BP (420–780

D)49, interpreted as

lagging about 100 years behind temperatures, giving anomalous warmth in the supposedly cold dark ages.


ssuming the standard radiocarbon convention BP = years pre-1950.


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