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Pho o Credi : A Handbook for he Nuclear Suppliers Group Dual-Use Annex. Repor No. LA-13131-M (April 1996).

Pho o Credi : Engineered Pressure Sys ems, Inc.

electrical connections are made and all process in- strumentation is con- nected before the lid is lowered into the furnace and sealed. As the object is heated, it is subjected to great pressure until the proper densification has been achieved. Reaction products are removed by internal plumbing so they do not come into contact with the electric heaters and cause them to short.

Figure 7-1: A labora ory-sized isos a ic press showing i s hree main componen s: pressure chamber, pressure genera or, and con rol console.

Typic l Missile-Rel ted Uses: Isostatic presses are used in making nose tips for reentry vehicles and nozzle inserts for rocket motors.

Other Uses: These presses are used in diffusion bonding of similar metals, diffusion bonding of dissimilar metals to form laminates (silver-nickel-silver or copper-stainless), and provision of seamless joints. They are used in var- ious powder metallurgy applications. They are also used to improve the

quality of metal castings and forgings by hy- drostatically forcing defects to close and bond shut.

Figure 7-2: Two removable high-pressure closures, showing holes for hoses or pipes.

Appe r nce ( s m nuf ctured): Isostatic presses intended for densification are specially modified to operate while a pyrolysis reaction is occurring. A typical laboratory-size system has three main components: a pressure cham- ber, a high-pressure generator, and a control console, as shown in Figure 7-1. The pressure chamber is usually a vertical, thick-walled cylinder with a removable, high-pressure clo- sure, or plug, at the upper end. Two examples are shown in Figure 7-2. They are water- cooled and have attachments for hoses or pipes. The press may be surrounded by an energy-absorbing shield, shown partially re- moved on the left of Figure 7-1. This shield may be engineered at the plant where the sys- tem operates and often involves installing the



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