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Extract from the Book A Shiite Encyclopedia by Hassan Aminie - page 30 / 42

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Shi’ite Books on Dirayatul Hadith 1

The first person to begin in the field was Al-Hakim Abu Abdullah An-Naishapuri who is known as Ibn-ul-Bai’a.  We wrote a book titled Marifat-u-Ulumil-Hadith. According to Kasifuz-Zunun, the first person to initiate in this field was Al-Hakim Abu Abdullah An-Naishapuri. He wrote Marifat-u-Ulum-il-Hadith which is five volumes and contains fifty types of Traditions. He was followed by In-us-Salah who has mentioned 65 types of Traditions. The author of Kashfuz Zunun then writing about the studies on Traditions (Ulum-ul-Hadith) mentions a book by Abi’ Ammr Uthman Bin Abdur Rahman known as Ibn-us-Salah Ash-Shahrzuri Al-Hafiz Ash-Shafi’i Ad Dimashqui who died in 643 AH.

1.A branch of Islamic studies dealing with the principles of judging the validity of reported Tradition by use of reason and logical argument.

As Suyuti has said in Tabrib-ur-Rawi (Third note), Shaikh-ul-Islam has said htat the first person to terminology (that is the Terminology of the Traditions) was Al-Qadi Abu Muhammad Ar-Ramehrmuzi but he did not go well into details. He was found by Al-Hakim Abu Abudullah An-Naishapuri in the field but he colt not arrange it ad give it to goof form. These two were found by Abu Na’im Al-Asbahani. Sbu Amr Uthman Bin As-Salah Ash-Sherzuri who made refined it.

I have to say that Abu Naim Al-Asbahani, Ahamd Bin Abdullah the author of Hulyat-ul-Awliyai, was not a Shiite although he might have been. As to Abu Naim Al-Fadl Bin Dakkin, he was definitely a Shiite. As-Suyuti has himself said in Al-Awail that the first person to classify different types of the traditions was Ibn-us-Salah in his well known Al-Mukhtasar. What he means is hat Ibn-us-Salah was the first one to refine and arrange this branch of studies as has been mentioned in his quotation from Shaikh-Ul-Islam, and not that he was the first person to begin. The pioneer in this filed was Al-Hakim, as has been said by Shaikh-ul-Islam and and Al-Hakim was senior to Ibn-us-Salah by about 238 years. As-Samani in Al-Ansab and Adh-Dhahabi in Tadhkiratul Huffaz have testified that Al-Hakim was a Shiite. He died in 405 AH.

Among the Shiite scholars who worked in this field was As-Sayyid Jamal-ud-Din Ahmad Bin Musa Bin Jafar Bin Tawas Al-Hussaini. His student Al-Hassan Bin Dawud Al-Hilli has said about him in his Rijal that he did the best in the field of Rijal, Reporting of the Tradition and Exegesis (Tafsir) to which nothing can be added. Jamal-ud-Din Ahmad coined new terminology in the field of the Traditions and divided them according to the Imamite views into four types which are:

i.

As-Sahih (correct and absolute authentic)

ii.

Al-Hassan (Good)

iii.

Al-Muaththaq (The Reliable)

iv.

Ad-Daif (Weak)

In addition to these types, he further classified the Traditions not falling within the definition of above-mentioned types:

i)

Al-Mursal;

ii)

Al-Mudmar;

iii)

Al-Marfu’a

iv)

Al-Maqtu’a

v)

Al-Mutawartar

vi)

Al-Aahad

vii)

Al-Maqbul

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