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Extract from the Book A Shiite Encyclopedia by Hassan Aminie - page 6 / 42





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Similarly Sayyidah Fatimah Az-Zahra (S.A.) and her two sons Imam Al-Hassan (A.S.) and Imam Al-Hussain (A.S.) were profoundly accomplished in this respect. What has resulted from their talks about the religious studies is sufficient to fill volumes. It would suffice to refer to the speeches made by Her (S.A.) after the death of Her (S.A) Father – The Prophet (S.A.W.W.)  - which contain a lot of material about the philosophy of Shara and religious injunctions. You have learnt during the Eight Discussions about Mushaf-o-Fatimah (S.A.) or the Book of Fatimah (S.A.) as well as that Imam Al-Hassan (A.S.) and his Father Ali Bin Abi Talib (A.S.) were the first to write about such knowledge.

Then comes the name of Ibn Abbas who is usually called the Pontiff of Ummah and the Jurist of the Community. He is always referred to in the matters relating to the traditions, Jurisprudence and Religious Injunctions. He died in 67 A.H.

Next to come are Salman-Al-Farsi and Abu Dhar Al-Ghaffari. They were the first to collect the Traditions and classify them under different headings. When discussed as to who was the first to write a book of Islam, we quoted form Ibnm Shahr Ashub that the pioneer in this respect was Ali Bin Abi Talib (A.S.) who was followed by Salman, Abu Dhar, Al-Asbagh Bin Nabatah, Abdullah Bin Abi Rafe and Imam Zainul Aabidin A.S. (who wrote As-Sahifa Al-Kamilah) respectively. To Salman is attributed a book of Traditions named as Al-Jathalique. Ash Shaikh has said in his Al-Fahrist, He has reported about Al-Jathalique the Byzantine who was sent by Byzantine King to Madinah after the death of the Prophet. Ash-Shaikh has then given this authorities and evidence to authenticity of the book. According to Ma’alim-ul-Ulama Salman reported about Al-Jathalique in this book. Similarly, Abu Dhar has a book like Al-Khutbah to his credit in which he explained the situation after the death of the Prophet (S.A.W.W.) Ash-Shaikh in Al-Fahrist and Ibn Shahr Ashub in Al-Ma’alim have said that Jundub Bin Junadah Abu Dhar Al-Ghaffari has a Khutab to his credit in which he explained the situation and things after the death of the Prophet (S.A.W.W.). Ash-Shaikh has mentioned the authority to the authenticity of this statement. Abu Dhar died in 31 A.H. while Salman passed in 35 A.H.

Abu Rafe Ibrahim or Aslam, who was a freed slave of Prophet (S.A.W.W.) is also counted among such scholars. An-Najashi has said while discussing the first groupt of the Shi’ite writer, Abu Rafe was in Mecca in the past and then he migrated to Madinah where he remained attached to the Prophet (S.A.W.W) and saw what the latter saw and did. Then he became a companion of Ali Bin Abi Talib (A.S.) after the death of the Prophet (S.A.W.W.). HE was among the best of the Shiites, participated in all the battles on the side of Ali Bin Abi Talib (A.S.) and was in charge of the treasury during his Caliphate in Kufa. An-Najashi further says that Abu Rafe was the author of a book containing Sunun, injunctions and different problems. Then he mentions the authorities for his statement leading back to Muhammad Bin Ubaidullah Bin Abi Rafe to his father and then to his grandfather Abi Rafe and then to Ali Bin Abi Talib (A.S.). An-Najashi then gives an idea of the book discussing it chapter by chapter, which As-Salat (Prayers(, Fasting, Hajj,. Zakat  and miscellaneous problems. He was therefore the first one to collect the Traditions and classify them under various headings. However, who collected all the traditions for ht first itme belonged to the third century as has been mentioned in Tadrib-ur-Rawa by As-Suyuti inb Hjar however says that the task of collecting the tradition was undertaken for the time of Muhammad Ibn Shahab Az-Zahri under the order of Umar Bin Abdul Aziz who became a Caliph in 98 A.H. and died in 111 A.H.

According to the reports of Ibn Hajar, Abu Rafe died in the early phase of the Caliphate of Ali Bin Abi Talib (A.S.).

From the tabi’ites and their Followers.

Adh-Dhahabi, who is not a Shi’ite, has said in his book Mizan-ul-I’tadal that the Shi’ism spread among the Tabi’ites and their followers to a very great extent. He has said during

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