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A

‘1.

  • *

    I

I

L’au-trier jort’

I

a-

.

na

.

1

e

Se-

bis-

I

  • -

    I

sa

I

I

2. Tro- bei

.

pas-

to-

I

c

I

ra

SRI-

fir-

so

83.

5.

De

cap’

jai

e

e

de

ren

ga-

oel’

e

WS-

sis-

P-

lis-

sa

4. Si

C”m

sa

6.

Vest

e

fi-

Ila

ca-

mi-

de

vi-

la-

na

La

trer-

lir-

sa

i

so.t-

lars

e

eaus-

rar

de

la-

na

Ex. 2. “Uautrier

jost’una sebissa”

While the biographies, or

v&,

of Occitan poets

do not portray women as singing, they do speak of

their ability to compose:

ofAzalais

de

Porcairagues,

for example, it is said that she “sabet trobar”

(knew how to compose).37

The troubadour

Bertran

de Born tells us in one of his songs that he

has used the “son de

n’Alamanda”

(Alamanda’s

tune), suggesting that Alamanda may have com- posed the tune- or, perhaps, it was a tune that

can argue with some confidence that the Comtessa de Dia sang her song herself, or that it could also have been sung by someone else; available evi- dence suggests that the performing conventions of trobairid songs likely paralleled those of the trou- badours. And if the purpose of the song was to give a lesson in proper behavior, women could give that lesson in singing as well as men.

she sang.

3’

In one of

Raimon

de

Miraval’s

songs,

Marcabru, “L’autrier jost’una sebissa”

“Tot quan

faa,”

the lady is enjoined to learn the

song he sends her: “Dreg a mon belh

Mai

d’amic

/

Chansos vai dir que t’entenda,

/

E si tan fai que

t’aprenda,

/

Ben tenh mon chantar per

ric”

(Go,

song, straight to my beautiful

Mais

d’amic,

I

so

that she may hear you, and if she goes so far as

/

to

learn

you,

/

I

shall

certainly

consider

my

singing

Although performance is not specifically mentioned, one can presume that having learned the song, the lady might well perform it. The

noble).39

trobairitz refer to their art as singing

(‘x

chantar

“Ja de chantar”); if one grants that men sang songs so entitled, there is no reason to refuse to grant the same activity to women. One therefore

m’er,”

Let us now move both chronologically and geo- graphically to our second song. Marcabru belongs to the second generation of troubadours (the first from which we have music). Although he must count among the most celebrated and prolific of the troubadours, the Comtessa de Dia he can- not be identified with absolute Refer- ences in the poems indicate that he likely worked

lie

certainty.4o

at the courts of

W&m X,

Duke of Aquitaine (son

of the first known troubadour and father of Eleanor of Aquitaine), Alfonse Jourdan of Toulouse, and also Alfonso VII of sebissa” (fig. 2) is one of the best known in part because it may have been the earliest

&stile-Leon. “L’autrier josiuna pastorelas, ex-

Jean 38. 39. Margaret

and A-H.

Biographies far loignor

(Cambridge, Mass.: The

37.

Boutikre

Schua,

oh troubadour, 2nd

Nizet, 1964). 343.

ed. (Paris:

“D’un sirventes no.m cal

ganda”

80.13),

Switten, TheCmsos ofRaimon de MiravaL.

zg.

ofPoem andMelodies

(PC

v.

A Study

Mediaeval

Academy,

40.

227. E. Harvey, The Troubadour

19851, Ruth

Marcabm

and Love (London: Westfield College/University of London Committee for Me-

dieval Studies,

1989),

introduction.

37

FmzJmIcLcHEYEITE& MARGARETSWITTEN

Women in Troubadour Song

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