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and account books of her possessions in her treasury, but they have long since disappeared. We

ries

as a man should be

&thfi~I

to his lady to whom he

has commended himself by his hands.. .

.)I6

can, however, infer the extent of her

rural

holdings

from

rhe

division made between the two sons of her

great-grandnephew, Viscount Amalric I, after his death in 1270. This text and the brothers’ recog- nizance of fief to King IX in 1272 give us the names of castles and villages where Amalric I had rights of lordship or where fiefs were held of him. Though doubtless some lands and rights were acquired and others lost during the first five years of the thirteenth century, these surely

seventy-

IOI

Louis

This is the language ploys when he sings:

Bernart

de Ventadorn em-

Max jonchas, ab co1 c/e, ~05 mhutrei e.m coman.

(Hands joined and with bowed head,

I give and commend

myseif

to you.)17

approximate

Ermengard’s

holdings.13

Lordship in

these

villages

would have included many things:

lands and vineyards; mills and ovens; pastures, meadows, and woodlands; quarries and mines (Ermengard’s holdings included important silver and gold mines in the mountains north of

and it comes straight from a decidedly scene he could have witnessed in Ermengard’s court, or, indeed, in the courts of other century women, for Ermengard was not alone of

unerotic

twelfi-

her kind. Eastward along the

costal

plain there was her

dues from hunting and fishing; portions from peasant harvests, justice, and fiefs; the ser- vices of fief holders; and taxes, uses, requisitions, and demands.14 Above all, lordship would have included oaths of fidelity from the castellans who held her many castles and homage and fidelity those, whether lords or peasants, who held

Bkziers);

f;om fiefs.‘5

Of the hundreds of such oaths that once must have existed in writing (for they were regularly recorded), one survives, the oath of Bernard of Durban given in 1157:

De ti bora in antea.. .jideLti ero.. .per dirertam+m sine ullo inganno, sicut home Abet esse ad warn don- inam nripropriis manibu est commeruhs.

viscountess

(From this hour forward, I Bernard son of Fida will be true to you Ermengard of Narbonne daughter of Ermengard by true faith without deceit

exact contemporary Beatrice, countess of

Mau-

who inherited her tiny county on the edge of the Rhone delta in 1132. Her first marriage to

guio,

Berenguer-Ramon,

count of Provence, produced

a son, who succeeded his father as count of Provence in Beatrice remained countess of Mauguio. Two children came from her second marriage to Bernard Pelet, lord of Bertrand and Ermessend. Beatrice associated both of her husbands in her rule: They both enjoyed the title of count of Mauguio, though neither acted inde- pendently of her within her lands. Then, in 1170, came the first signs of a family feud: Her husband Bernard Pelet and their son Bertrand made an im- portant grant to the lords of a nearby village with- out mentioning Beatrice, with the son styling himself “count of Mauguio.” The following year, his father now dead, Bertrand, “count of Mauguio,” allied himself with William of Montpellier. To

Al&:

II++

.

and

  • 13.

    HGL 8:1728

  • 14.

    list

G 274. For Ermengard’s gold and silver mines, see

en

amost text

d6partmentales l’H&ault 1271. Claudie Amado, “la seigneurie des Languedoc Mkditerraneen

B&iers,” mimun Roussillon, 1977), IZ+J+

HGL 5x289,

rhe

Langueak-Rmrssillon

This

and 1735 and Archives

de

is taken

word for word from the division of

Mines et

commentary on this

by

(Montpellier: Federation historique du

mines en pays de et du

15.

This is not the place

co

go into the

complexirks

of the Occitan

fwm,

which was

far

more generalized than the familiar “knights

fief” of

English

practice. For some derails see H. Richardot,

“Le

fief

roturier &Toulouse,” Rcvw hirtorique de dmitjangaair et&ranger

4e s&ie,

14 (1935):

307-59.495-569,

and

Paui

Ourliac,

Lx &h&ire de /LZ S&e

(Paris:

CNFS, 1985), 52-59.

  • 16.

    HGL

  • 17.

    “Pois

5.

~01. 1~04:11.

preyau

me,

senhoi’

(PC

70.36), w. p-51.

Carl

Appel, ed., Bemmtvon Ventadorn: Seize Lieder(Hde:

Niemeyer,

ISIS),

208.

29

FREDRICLC~& MGARET SWITTEN

Women in Troubadour Song

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