When asked if there is any difference between HIV & AIDS, 25% of the students in the village answered that there is a difference and 44% said that there’s not. In the city 72% answered that there’s a difference and 26% said that there’s not (Fig. 2).
When the students were asked how HIV is spread from one person to another we found only one significant difference between the city and the village. On the question if HIV is spread from mother to child during pregnancy or delivery 95.7% (95% CI: 92.3-99.1) of the students in the city answered yes, compared to 84.4% (95% CI: 78-90.8) in the village. When asked if HIV is spread when eating or drinking from the same plates and cups, 7.1% of the female students and 2.1% of the male students in the village answered yes. The corresponding numbers in the city were 4.8% for the females whereas none of the male students answered yes. 14.3% of the female students in the village thought that you can get HIV if you wash or change clothes for someone who has the infection. 4.3% of the male students in the village were of the same opinion regarding that question. In the city only 1.4% of the students (0% of the males, 2.4% of the females) had the belief that HIV can be spread that way. In the village, 36.9% of the students answered that HIV is spread by kissing. The corresponding percentage in the city was 31.9. On the question if HIV is spread by having sexual contacts, 96.6% of the students in the village and 99.3% of the students in the city answered yes. 82.8% of the students in the village and 76.8% in the city answered that HIV can be spread through breast feeding. (Table 2)
The students were asked what they think is the main way HIV is spread from one person to another. In the village 89% of the students gave sex as one of the main ways. Of those students, 11% answered sex with HIV infected persons, 13% unprotected sex, 3% sex outside marriage and 3% multiple sexual partners. 24% of the students thought that another main way by which HIV is transmitted is needles, syringes and blades. 8% answered blood transfusions, 7% answered from mother to child during pregnancy. 2% of the students thought that kisses is one of the main ways that HIV is spread by. Unexpected answers that were given by the students in the village was “kidneys” and “external genital organs” (3% and 4% respectively). 6% of the students didn’t give any answer on this question. In the city 98% of the students gave sex as one of the main ways by which HIV is spread. Of those students, 4% answered sex with HIV infected persons, 17% unprotected sex, 26% multiple sex partners and 53% answered sexual contact. 40% of the students in the city answered that needles and injections accounts for another major part of the transmission. Another main way of transmission that was mentioned by 12% was mother-to-child transmission during pregnancy. Other answers were blood transfusions (16%), prostitution (4%), homosexuality (3%) and kisses (0.7%).
About the protection against HIV, 93% of the students in the city claimed that there are ways to protect against the infection and 3% answered that there are no ways for protection. The corresponding numbers in the village were 74% and 14% respectively. The remaining percentages in each group did not know or did not answer. Ways to protect against HIV that were mentioned by the students in the village were protected sex (26%), using disposable syringes (15%), avoid sexual contacts (12%), avoiding sex outside marriage (7%), control of feelings (5%). Answers mentioned in the city were protected sex (33%, of which 24% answered use of condoms), on sexual partner (18%), avoid sexual contacts (9%), using disposable syringes (27%) and control of feelings (4%). Unexpected answers given in the city were contraceptive tablets (0.7%), medicines (1%) and “avoid pregnancy during infected periods” (0.7%).