others). Indeed, Domagalski and Steelman (2007) found that anger was valued when it was directed toward improve-ments. This suggests a question for future research: Are those with higher status allowed to violate work unit anger norms in a way that will result in more positive outcomes than those with lower status? A study of managers’ or CEOs’ anger expressions and the implications for subordinates could also help us better understand the impact of status on anger outcomes (see Lewis, 2000).
The majority of the respondents were women, and while this is typical of emotional labor studies (c.f. Diefendorff and Richard 2003, Glomb and Liao 2003, Pugh 2001), it may have influenced our results because anger is often viewed as more acceptable for men than for women (Lewis 2000, Simpson and Stroh 2004). We were unable to examine carefully the impact of gender differences in this study because in almost all of the work units (except coaching) the work was gender segregated by job titles. However, our respondents rarely mentioned gender, and the differences in our data appeared minimal – except when the gender differences were also confounded by status differences -- such as in the surgical center where the doctors were mostly men and the nurses and others were almost all women. This generates questions for further research such the extent to which gender stereotypes influence anger expressions and outcomes.
The combined effects of gender, status and emotion also pose fruitful areas for further research. Like us, Tiedens and her colleagues (2001) were not able to tease out gender effects, but speculate that such conferral of increased status may occur for men but not women. For example, one possible line of investigation could be exploring whether men and women express anger with similar frequency and intensity when controlling for power and status, but whether the outcomes following anger expression are more negative for women than men because these expressions violate gender stereotypes. Recently, Sloan (2004) and Domagalski and Steelman (2007) have demonstrated such an interaction effect between gender and status, albeit in opposite directions. Normative context may also interact with status to influence anger expression (Tiedens 2000a). Consequently, future research should examine the interaction effects of status, gender and context on the outcomes of anger expression.