Questions 7-23 are concerned with the implementation/effectiveness (I/E) aspects of the study.
What type of experimental design was used in the I/E and F/B portions of the study?
See algorithm adapted from Zaza et al. (2000; Figure E.1)
Choose the one design that best fits the I/E portion of the study.
If your study has both I/E and F/B portions, then select the appropriate design(s) and indicate to which portion of the study the design is applicable with the use of “I/E” and “F/B” in the accompanying text box. Include both I/E and F/B in the same text box, if both portions of the study use the same design.
Are you confident that the means of selecting and maintaining the sample minimized bias in the I/E portion of the study?
In the comment box following your response, note the rationale for your selection.
This question addresses sampling bias, selection bias, bias due to withdrawals, selection threat to internal validity,34 or any other bias arising from the selection and maintenance of the sample
Sampling bias: systematic error due to study of a non-random sample of a population
Selection bias: error due to systematic differences in characteristics between those who take part in a study and those who do not
Bias due to withdrawals: A difference between the true value and that actually observed in a study due to the characteristics of those subjects who choose to withdraw.
Selection threat to internal validity: A threat to internal validity arising from differing characteristics of subjects in the intervention and comparison groups
Before-after and time-series-without-comparison-group designs are unlikely to receive a response of “yes”, because the workplace selected for the study is typically not randomly selected
Studies with samples comprised of volunteers are unlikely to receive a response of “yes” because volunteers are typically different than the target population.
34 This term is from the key reference on quasi-experimental designs: Cook TD, Campbell DT (1979) Quasi-experimentation design & analysis issues for field settings. Boston: Houghton Mifflin. It also appears in the updated chapter: Cook TD et al. (1990) Quasi experimentation In: Dunnette MD, Hough LM (eds.) Handbook of Industrial and Organizational Psychology, 2nd ed. Palo Alto, Ca.: Consulting Psychologists Press.
Effectiveness of Occupational Health & Safety Management Systems: A Systematic Review