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employee behaviour blind to the knowledge of intervention status

    • Consider the measurement methods independent of the sample issues. For example, in the Nytro et al. study, there was concern that the methods used for implementation might have created a bias in the direction of better compliance because company managers would have an incentive to appear as though they are complying with the law. If we had been told that the self-report method had been verified in a sub-sample through an external audit, we could have given a high rating for the measurement methods, even though the means of selecting the sample (quota sampling; no indication of refusals) could nevertheless have biased the results towards more compliance.

    • Consider all measurement methods pertinent to the corresponding findings (not just the intermediate outcome(s) variables). For example, in the case of the intermediate and final outcomes findings, the method of measuring OHSMS variables might also be relevant.

  • 14.

    Were appropriate statistical tests conducted on the intermediate outcome data?

    • In the comment box following your response, note the rationale for your selection.

    • The issue of whether adjustment for confounders took place is covered in Q9. In this question, one is only concerned about whether such adjustments were done correctly, if they were done

    • Do not fear choosing the option of “reviewer not qualified to answer.” We are simply using this response to flag where we need expertise from elsewhere in the group or even external to the group.

    • Was the test appropriate for the sample size and type of data?

    • If no statistical tests were used, and you think they were not needed, select the answer corresponding to this. If no statistical tests were used and you think they should have been, then use one of the following three options: minor deficiencies; inappropriate statistical test, which might modify the conclusions; inappropriate statistical tests, which could substantially affect conclusions.

    • Consider issues of statistical power in Q43 not here.

  • 15.

    Are you confident that the measurement methods did not introduce bias to the corresponding final outcome(s) findings?

  • In the comment box following your response, note the rationale for your selection.

  • This question addresses measurement bias; i.e., systematic error arising from inaccurate measurement (or classification) of subjects on study variable(s).

Effectiveness of Occupational Health & Safety Management Systems: A Systematic Review

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