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    • Consider the validity of the measurement method; consider reliability to the extent that could bias findings. Examples:

      • o

        Consider whether blinding was used in the assessment of final outcome(s)

        • o

          The introduction of an OHSMS could alter reporting practices, so this potential source of bias should be eliminated by some means (e.g., confirm that there is a constant ratio of major to minor injuries over time or assess change through more serious injuries (since changes in reporting are more likely to affect less serious injuries); verification of constant reporting practices by worker survey)

        • o

          Injury measures should either i) adjust for exposure (e.g,. have a denominator of FTEs or hours worked) or ii) confirm that exposure is constant if not adjusted.

    • Consider the measurement methods independent of the sample issues. For example, in the Nytro et al. study, there was concern that the methods used for implementation might have created a bias in the direction of better compliance because company managers would have an incentive to appear as though they are complying with the law. If we had been told that the self-report method had been verified in a sub-sample through an external audit, we could have given a high rating for the measurement methods, even though the means of selecting the sample (quota sampling; no indication of refusals) could nevertheless have biased the results towards more compliance.

    • Consider all measurement methods pertinent to the corresponding findings (not just the final outcome(s) variables). For example, in the case of the intermediate and final outcomes findings, the method of measuring OHSMS variables might also be relevant.

  • 16.

    Were appropriate statistical tests conducted on the final outcome data?

In the comment box following your response, note the rationale for your selection. The issue of whether adjustment for confounders took place is covered in Q9. In this question, one is only concerned about whether such adjustments were done correctly, if they were done Do not fear choosing the option of “reviewer not qualified to answer.” We are simply using this response to flag where we need expertise from elsewhere in the group or even external to the group. Was the test appropriate for the sample size and type of data? Some guidance is reproduced from material drafted by Harry Shannon, 35

35 Robson LS, Shannon HS, Goldenhar LM, Hale AR. Guide to evaluating the effectiveness of strategies for preventing work injuries: How to show whether a safety intervention really works. DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 2001-119, 2001.

Institute for Work & Health


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