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Table H.1.7. Study #7: Saksvik, P. O. and Nytro, K. Implementation of internal control (IC) of health, environment and safety (HES) in Norwegian enterprises, Safety Science. 1996; 23(1): 53-61.

Research Question:

Was the rate of absenteeism different after implementation of Internal Control regulations? Was the rate of accidents...followed by one or more days of absenteeism...different after implementation of Internal Control regulations?

Experimental Design: BEFORE-AFTER STUDY

Comparisons of absenteeism and accident rates were made before the intervention (1990) and after the intervention (1991 and 1st half of 1992).

Sample Characteristics:

INDUSTRY: not specified, but likely represents all private and public industries in Norway, based on information contained in related studies. SAMPLE SIZE: n= 2092. WORKPLACE SIZE: Average # of employees=44. OCCUPATIONS: Survey respondents were not explicitly described although authors report they were 'typically' manager representatives. SAMPLING METHOD: Randomized quota sampling using computer-aided telephone interviewing.

Maintenance of Sample:

Not applicable. Cross-sectional self-report survey with administrative data sources - not subject to loss of follow-up.


Regulations on internal control (IC) of Health and Safety (HES) introduced in Jan. '92. Mandatory requirements for all workplaces in Norway, to introduce IC - defined by regulations as 'systematic actions (at the enterprise level) to ensure and document that the activities of health and safety control are performed in accordance with requirements specified in Acts of regulations. e.g., the Working Environment Act of 1977. The systematic actions must be described as administrative procedures.' (p. 54). IC regulations require workplaces to arrange for systematic follow-up of requirements laid down in the following acts: 1) Working Environment Act 2) Pollution Control Act 3) Legislation relating to fire and explosion hazard and fire prevention 4) Product Control Act 5) Civil Defence Act 6) Act relating to Electrical Installations and Electrical Equipment. Changes in absenteeism and accident rates (of more than 1 day of ill-health absence) were compared pre-intervention (1990) and post (1991 & first half of 1992).

Data Collection, Data Transformation, and Measurement Properties:

6 Implementation

Changes as a result of introduction of IC: more clear lines of responsibility, more better risk assessment, better documentation, new strategic plans. Used a cross-sectional survey consisting of 45 questions about HES activities and workplace demographics. The questionnaire was delivered via telephone and had been piloted with a group of 500 enterprises prior to the introduction of IC. No information is provided on validity or reliability of instrument. Representatives of enterprises answered the questionnaire (the rep was usually a manager). Most data provided by the rep was based on archival data, however in a “few” cases the data was based on recall

Effectiveness of Occupational Health & Safety Management Systems: A Systematic Review


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