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document HES assessments regularly, arrange meetings between management and workers at which HES is discussed, and regularly audit its IC system. Note: in 1997, the IC was revised to give more emphasis to management commitment, employee participation, and systematic environmental assessment as opposed to content factors. - this was after the data collection

Data Collection, Data Transformation, and Measurement Properties:

  • Implementation

6 Intermediate Outcomes

Independent variables: Measures of IC (from self-administered managers’ questionnaires). Two such measures of IC: (1) an overall question on how the manager subjectively rated the status of the implementation of IC at the garage (5-point scale, from “do not know what IC is” (=1), “not started” (=2) to “implemented IC (=5). (2) Internal Control Index: 16 questions on IC factors relevant to most companies, e.g., “does the garage have a health and safety deputy?”(3- point scale – yes, partial, no). Missing values for variables included in IC index were given the mean score of other variables in the index. All garages had at least 50% of values filled in.

Dependent variables: Data from garage workers’ questionnaires, all scored on 7-point scale, poor=1 to very good=7. Satisfaction with HES activities; satisfaction with the physical working environment; satisfaction with the psychosocial working environment; psychological job demands; decision authority; social support; HES-related management support; health-related support and control; workers’ participation in HES activities.

6 Final OHS Outcomes

Independent variables: Measures of IC (from self-administered managers’ questionnaires). Two such measures of IC as described above.

Dependent variables: The workers’ questionnaire contained a total of 7 questions related to musculoskeletal symptoms experienced in the last 30 days. Six of the questions were derived from the Subjective Health Complaints Questionnaire, and asked whether they had experienced pain in the head, neck, upper back, lower back, shoulders or arms; one question on knee pain was added. The severity of pain was rated on a four-point scale for all 7 items, and the scores for each body part were added together. One question on sick leave asked respondents whether they had been away from work in the last 30 days (yes or no).

  • Economic


  • Facilitators/

Barriers Statistical Tests:

Cronbach’s alpha coefficients were calculated for each index. Pearson’s correlation analysis was performed to test correlations between the two measures of IC, the size of the company, and the percentage of unionized workers at the garage. Multiple regression analyses, adjusted for company size and unionization, were performed to investigate the relationships between each IC variable and each of the intermediate and final outcome variables. For these analyses, workers from each garage were assigned the IC score or the subjective rating of IC implementation from their managers’ responses.

Effectiveness of Occupational Health & Safety Management Systems: A Systematic Review


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