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collectively define the possible scope of an OHSMS. Their model can therefore be used to assess the completeness of other OHSMSs, as it was in a review of OHSMSs prepared for the International Labour Organization (Dalrymple et al., 1998). This latter group of authors, which included Redinger and Levine, used the framework to assess the completeness of 23 management system documents targeting occupational health and safety or the environment. The present review also used the same framework to assess the content of the OHSMSs under study (Appendix H2).

The completeness of Redinger and Levine’s framework is attested to by the similarity between it and the later ILO Guidelines (2001). The ILO document had input from employer, labour, and government representatives, enabling serious omissions from the background document to the ILO (i.e., Darymple et al., 1998), to be rectified.

The second valuable contribution of Redinger and Levine’s work is its analysis of the 27 elements from the viewpoint of general systems theory, drawing on von Bertlanffy (1950) and a policy analysis model by Brewer and deLeon (1993).

The 27 elements were grouped into five categories: OHS inputs, OHS process (formulation), OHS process (implementation/ operations), OHS feedback, and open system elements. Drawing on system concepts of self- regulation, integration among system elements, and integration of the OHS sub-system with the rest of the organization and the external environment, Redinger and Levine identified the five primary (and four secondary) OHS feedback and open system elements as those that are distinctly system-like. These elements are a concrete means by which one can distinguish an OHSMS from an OHS program. The five primary elements are4:

  • Communication System

  • Evaluation System

  • Continual Improvement

  • Integration

  • Management Review

This is not, however, to say that an OHS arrangement must incorporate all of these elements in order to be classified as an OHSMS.

Drawing on the literature just described and other insights encountered during the course of the systematic review, the review team proposed the following definition of an OHSMS:

4 The four secondary elements are: Document and Record Management, Auditing and Self- Inspection, Incident Investigation and Root Cause Analysis, Health/Medical Program and Surveillance

Effectiveness of Occupational Health & Safety Management Systems: A Systematic Review


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