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having SafetyMAP accreditation made release of comparisons inappropriate due to privacy laws (Graham, 2004).

Nova Scotia’s Certificate of Recognition The Workers’ Compensation Board of Nova Scotia encourages all workplace parties to implement workplace safety systems, and awards their Certificate of Recognition to those who do so, and who meet the established criteria in a safety audit carried out by one of the WCB’s approved audit firms. The Government of Nova Scotia may require that potential suppliers hold the Certificate of Recognition in order to bid on contracts.

Alberta’s Partnerships in Health and Safety Programs This plan was first established in 1989 in the Province of Alberta; its vision is “Fostering a culture where health and safety becomes an integral part of every workplace.” (www3.gov.ab.ca/hre/whs/partners/index/asp). Similar to the aforementioned plans, it is based on the premise that when employers and workers voluntarily build effective health and safety programs, the human and financial costs of workplace injuries and illnesses are reduced, and that larger reductions in injuries are achieved than by regulatory compliance alone. A total of 67 organizations are listed as part of the Partners in Health and Safety network which promotes and certifies organizations. The website lists approximately 4900 organizations which have achieved the Alberta Human Resources and Employment’s Certificate of Recognition by meeting the program’s health and safety management system. The WCB- Alberta offers premium rate discounts for implementing effective health and safety and disability management programs.

2.5.2 Mandatory OHSMS initiatives It is difficult to pinpoint the start of OHSMS legislation. During the 1970s, legislative reform took place throughout the industrialized world (Frick and Wren, 2000). Some of this legislation could be viewed as constituting a primitive OHSMS intervention, as a review of Ontario’s Bill 70 and Quebec’s LSST in Appendix H2 suggests.

In the early 1980s in Norway, the offshore industry became regulated by Internal Control legislation, which had its roots in OHSMSs developed by the petroleum industry. Internal Control is likely the most comprehensive of existing mandatory OHSMSs. In 1992, coverage was extended to all of the Norwegian onshore industry.

At a similar point in time, the European Community’s Framework Directive (89/391) was promulgated, with a requirement for EC countries to embody it in their national legislation within four years. In Britain, the transposed legislation became the Management of Health and Safety at Work Regulations (Grayham and Rosario, 1997). European researchers refer to the EC Directive as “systematic occupational health and safety

Effectiveness of Occupational Health & Safety Management Systems: A Systematic Review


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