The full set of inclusion and exclusion criteria used to determine the eligibility of studies for this review are described below and summarized in tabular form in Appendix I.
Publication type Studies published in peer-reviewed journals, book chapters, dissertations, reports, or Internet publications that contained a report on relevant research or a review of relevant research were included.7 Magazine articles, newspapers, newsletters, and conference proceedings were excluded.
Population of interest Workplaces could be located anywhere in the world.
Nature of intervention An OHSMS intervention, which was initiated at either the workplace or extra-workplace level (i.e., an initiative instituted by a government body or agency, or other extra-workplace organization, to encourage the development of OHSMSs in workplaces) was required in the study.
Extra-workplace or workplace initiatives designed to address isolated aspects of OHSMSs or particular risks (e.g., needle-stick injuries in a health- care facility) were not considered to be OHSMS interventions.
An OHSMS intervention could be identified by one of three means:
i) directly, by a term synonymous with OHSMS or mention of specific types of OHSMS (e.g., ‘safety and health management system’, OHSAS 18001);
ii) indirectly, by mention of OHSMS legislation or other extra-workplace OHSMS initiative (e.g., European Framework Directive 89/391, Internal Control); or
iii) indirectly, by a term suggestive of OHSMS, and a description of its components that demonstrates that it is an OHSMS (e.g., comprehensive occupational health and safety program). In the case where terms were merely suggestive of an OHSMS, a description of the OHSMS must have been reported or referenced, and the description would qualify as that of an OHSMS if two or more system elements were specified, one of which was in the management domain (e.g., leadership, policy, planning, structure, evaluation), as opposed to both lying in the activity/technical domain (e.g., training, hazard control).
Multi-faceted management system interventions were included if they had an occupational health and/or safety component (e.g., a safety, health and environmental management system). However, the OHSMS intervention
7 Although a variety of publication types were permitted, the seven databases abstracted primarily peer-reviewed, published literature.
Effectiveness of Occupational Health & Safety Management Systems: A Systematic Review