must have included primary prevention as a major component. Thus, management system interventions focusing on disability or health services were excluded.
Type(s) of evidence Studies which examined either i) OHSMS implementation, ii) effectiveness of OHSMS interventions, or iii) facilitators/barriers to OHSMS implementation or optimal outcomes following OHSMS implementation were included in this review.
Implementation studies To meet the review’s inclusion criteria, implementation studies were required to have a quantitative measure of change in the level or intensity of the OHSMS. Measures of OHSMS implementation typically assess the presence/absence/quality of OHSMS elements in workplaces (e.g., management audit). Implementation studies that did not report on a corresponding extra-workplace or workplace intervention were excluded.
Effectiveness studies To meet the review’s inclusion criteria, effectiveness studies were required to have a quantitative8 measure of one of the following outcomes:
Intermediate OHS outcomes such as, changes in knowledge, beliefs, values, perceptions, behaviours, hazards, or risks
Final OHS outcomes such as, changes in injury/illness statistics or employee quality of life
Economic outcomes such as, changes in the costs associated with employee illness/injury (at either the workplace or extra- workplace level).
Comparisons in outcome studies To be included in this review, implementation and effectiveness studies were required to make a comparison of outcomes with the presence and absence of an OHSMS intervention, or between OHSMS interventions of different intensities. These comparisons could be made within or across workplaces.
Facilitator/barrier studies To meet the review’s inclusion criteria, quantitative or qualitative research methods were required to identify facilitators or barriers. Facilitators/barriers could relate to either OHSMS implementation or optimal outcomes following OHSMS implementation. The facilitators/barriers could relate to i) the OHSMS itself, ii) the workplace, or iii) the environment external to the workplace. Studies examining facilitators/barriers of optimal outcomes following OHSMS implementation that did not include a specification of the level of OHSMS implementation were excluded. Additionally, facilitator/barrier studies reflecting solely one expert’s opinion were also excluded.
8 For implementation and effectiveness evidence, we sought only quantitative findings, as the review’s goal was to derive a quantitative estimate of effect.
Institute for Work & Health