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Table 4.2.1 Nature of methodological limitations in the 18 studies selected for quality appraisal (n=22*)

First Author (Year of Publication)

Study Design

Sample

Nytro (1998) Saksvik (1996) Saksvik (1996) Torp (2000) Lanoie (1992) Lewchuk (1996) Saksvik (1996) Torp (2000) Dufour (1998) Nytro (1998)

BA BA CS CS TS TSWC CS CS TS BA

+ + + + + + + + + +

Dotson (1996) Pearse (2002) Edkins (1998) Alsop (1999) Anonymous (1993) Anonymous (1994) Bolton (2001) Dotson (1996) Eisner (1988) Alsop (1999) Dotson (1996) Yassi (1998) NONE

BA BA NRT TS TS BA TS BA CS TS BA TS NA

- + + + + + + - - + - + NA

Type of Outcome

Mandatory OHSMSs Implementation

Intermediate

Final

Economic Facilitators/barriers (quantitative) Voluntary OHSMSs Implementation

Intermediate Final

Economic

Facilitators/barriers (quantitative)

*n=22 because studies varied with respect to the number of different types of evidence

examined: 13 studies examined one type of evidence, three studies examined two, and two studies examined three. (These totals consider quantitative study findings only). **Quality assessment criteria: “Sample” refers to sample selection and maintenance “Confounders” refers to the consideration and control of confounders “Measurement methods” refers to the methods used to measure the evidence “Statistical tests” refers to the tests performed on the evidence “No additional bias” refers to other sources of bias identified by the article reviewers ***”Overall quality” refers to the overall quality rating provided by the article reviewers

-

-

+

-

Very low

+

+

-

+

Moderate

-

+

+

+

Moderate

+

-

-

-

Low

-

+

-

+

Low

-

+

-

+

Very low

-

+

+

+

Low

-

+

+

-

Low

-

+

+

+

Low

+

+

+

-

Moderate

-

-

+

-

Very low

+

+

+

+

Moderate

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

+

-

+

+

Moderate

+

+

+

+

Moderate

+

+

+

+

Moderate

+

+

+

+

Moderate

-

+

+

+

Low

+

+

+

+

Moderate

+

+

+

+

Moderate

+

+

+

+

Moderate

+

+

+

+

Moderate

+

-

-

+

Low

BA = before-after; CS = cross-sectional; NRT = non-randomized trial; TS = time-series; TSWC = time-series with concurrent control “+“ symbol: For “Sample”, “Confounders”, “Measurement methods”, and “No additional bias” the “+” symbol means the study met that criterion (either fully or partially) For “Statistical tests” the “+” symbol means the study met the criterion, there were minor deficiencies which would have little or no impact on the conclusions, or no statistical tests were necessary “-“ symbol: For all quality assessment criteria, a “-“ symbol means the study did not meet the criterion (or it was unclear)

Overall Quality***

Quality Assessment Criteria**

Confounders

Measurement

Statistical tests

No additional bias

Institute for Work & Health

40

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