# Table 4.5.2 Summary of effects from studies of mandatory OHSMSs

Type of Outcome

Implementation (of OHSMS)

Intermediate OHS Outcomes (e.g., safety climate)

Final OHS Outcomes (e.g., injury rate)

## Economic

Outcomes (e.g., firm financial benefits)

+

n.d.

+

n.d.

+

n.d.

+

p < 0.05 for 7 out of 9 intermediate outcomes

+

p < 0.001

+

P < 0.01

+

n.s.

+

P < 0.01

+

n.s.

+

P <0.05

of

Significance

Effect^{27 }

28

Direction

Statistical

Dufour, 1998 (LSST, Quebec)

β = 0.154 for productivity regressed on % of companies with prevention programs. In other words, adoption of prevention programs contributed positively to productivity growth, with the magnitude of the contribution (0.006) being two-fold greater than productivity growth observed for the period studied (0.003).

Nytro, 1998 (IC, Norway)

Saksvik, 1996 (IC, Norway)

Torp, 2000 (IC, Norway)

Effect

23% of companies perceived improvement in various aspects of OHSMS due to implementation of IC, 1 yr post-intervention (23% is median of results for 4 different aspects of the OHSMS) Increase from 8% (at 1 yr post- intervention) to 45% (at 4 yrs) of companies which have fully implemented IC. 29

30% of companies’ report increased HES awareness due to implementation of IC, 1 yr post-intervention^{29 }Median std β = 0.11 for 9 intermediate outcomes (incl. psychosocial working environment, physical working environment) regressed on degree of IC implementation, 4 years post- intervention

Lewchuk, 1996 (Bill 70, Ontario)

Saksvik, 1996 (IC, Norway)

Torp, 2000 (IC, Norway)

Regression coefficient, β = -0.015 for LTI frequency regressed on legislation change. In other words, 18% decrease in LTI from pre- to post-intervention β = 0.09 for change in absenteeism rate regressed on IC status, 1 yr post- intervention; β = 0.05 for change in accident rate regressed on IC status Std β = - 0.076 for musculoskeletal symptoms regressed on IC status, 4 yrs post-intervention; Std β = -0.013 for sick leave regressed on IC status

First Author, Year of Publication (Type of OHSMS)

Saksvik, 1996 (Internal Control (IC), Norway)

^{27 }Direction of effect is interpreted such that “+” is consistent with more implementation, better safety, and more financial benefits

28 29 n.d. = not determined. This figure derived from the study by weighting the results so that they account for the fact that only a sub-sample (n=911) from the entire sample (n=2092) responded to these questions (the non- respondents were those who hadn’t started implementing IC at all)

## Institute for Work & Health

66