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Peripheral Vasculature Diseases – Section 3 DISEASE CAUSING ARTERIAL SPASM
Color change in the fingers or toes that comes with cold temperature settings or emotional stress
Usually get a triphasic color response in the fingers (or toes):
Explanation blood flow is interrupted local accumulation of desaturated hemoglobin blood flow begins to resume
Color changes may be accompanied by numbness, paresthesias, or pain of the affected digits.
Only 16% of patients report worsening of their symptoms over an extended time, so prognosis is usually benign.
Primary Raynaud’s Phenomenon (aka Raynaud’s Disease): occurs as an isolated disorder
Patients are majority females between 20-40 years old
Apparently no genetic component
Secondary Raynaud’s Phenomenon: appears as a component of other conditions, such as…
Connective tissue diseases: like scleroderma, SLE
Arterial occlusive disorders: (see Section 2 study guide for Peripheral Vasculature Diseases)
Carpal tunnel syndrome: tunnel protects the median nerve and nine tendons; pressure placed on the nerve produces the numbness, pain, and eventually hand weakness
Thoracic outlet syndrome: compression of the neurovascular structures at the superior aperture of the thorax; the brachial plexus (95%), subclavian vein (4%), and subclavian artery (1%) are affected
Blood dyscrasias: a general term used to describe any abnormality in blood or bone marrow's cellular components, such as low WBC count, low RBC count, or low platelet count
Certain drugs: like…beta-blockers, ergotamine preparations (used for migraine headaches), some chemotherapy agents, and vasoconstrictor drugs (such as some OTC cold meds and narcotics)
Thermal or vibration injury: like with workers who operate vibrating tools
Raynaud’s Phenomenon is a vasospastic disease of the digital arteries (usually of the fingers, but 40% of patients also have involvement of their toes).
People with this condition can experience vasospasm, an extreme vasoconstrictor response when they’re in cold temperature settings or under emotional stress.
Vasospam causes temporary blockage of vascular lumen, which blocks blood flow.