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Probably more important for the military industry, however, is the fact that UAVs represent a new source of income, especially in the civilian market. In February 2006, Ronald D. Sugar, director of Northrop Grumman, told his board of directors that the decline in demand for manned aircraft posed a serious challenge for the company’s future. They decided to rebuild the company from the ground up: "As the line continues to blur between defence and domestic security, traditional defence companies must be versatile, offering systems and capabilities that have applications in domestic security and even general "non-security" markets." [30]

UAVs are dual-use technologies that can be used for deployment by the military as well as the civilian sector, and they are advertised as such by the industry. For example, the RAND corporation claims that "commercial UAVs could be used to monitor resources such as forest and farmland, wetlands, damns, reservoirs, wildlife (e.g., in nature reserves); fight fires or direct

environmental remediation, with influence environment, and economic development." [31]





Pilotless populism

Civil use in Western Europe and Germany usually means the deployment of UAVs by regional and federal police forces. Police use includes surveillance and intelligence gathering (at events, inside and outside of buildings, raids, border and port controls), evidence gathering (solving crimes, documenting

crime scenes), documenting troublemakers, scenarios and for missing persons), observatio

searches (during threat n (of objects and persons),

surveillance of VIPs and buildings, traffic control measures, transport missions and technical support. [32]

The CannaChopper UAV is deployed in the fight against cannabis smokers within the framework of "organised crime" in the Netherlands and Switzerland. [33] Since November 2007 the drone has served in the surveillance of football fans, particularly during the European football championship in June 2008. [34] During the NATO summit in April 2009 it was used to intercept "troublemakers" at French borders. [35] In the UK they have been used by police since mid-2007 to monitor rock fans, [36] and also for the enforcement of Anti-Social Behaviour Orders. In the Netherlands UAVs were used in February 2008 to support the police in the eviction of a squat. [37] Belgium, France and Italy have used them to target undocumented workers, demonstrators ('crowd control'), waste collection, undocumented migrants and other marginalised groups and their communities. Austria controls its eastern borders with drones. [38] The German police acquired Aladin and FanCopter UAVs for the surveillance of urban areas, while the Saxony and North-Rhine Westphalia regional police forces deploy the AirRobot. In Saxony, the UAV has been used for the surveillance of alleged hooligans since early 2008. [39] In other words, there is hardly a marginalised group that is not targeted by UAVs. For 190 euro per hour it is even possible to rent one's own drone at www.rent-a-drone.de. Compared to the rest of Europe, however, Germany is still lagging behind in UAV deployment.


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