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well as the Institute for Fire Fighting and the city of Dortmund’s Rescue Technology Unit. The second research project (Emergency Rescue at Mass Casualty Incidents, or 'Sofortrettung bei Großunfall mit Massenanfall von Verletzten', SOGRO) focuses on the use of UAVs for relaying information about accidents to the rescue services (the participating organisations are the German Red Cross, Stuttgart, Paderborn and Freiburg Universities as well as the Siemens AG and Andres Industries AG companies). [51]

In the various EU Framework Programmes (FP) and their predecessors, [52] UAVs play a role in (automated) border control, regaining control over security in emergency scenarios and the development of integrated platforms. The larger programmes include: Border Security Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (BSUAV), Civil Applications and Economic Effectiveness of Potential UAV Configurations (CAPECON), Innovative Future Air Transport Systems (IFATS), Innovative Operational UAS Integration (INOUI), Transportable Autonomous Patrol for Land Border Surveillance (TALOS), Unmanned Aerial Vehicles Network (UAVNET), UAV Safety Issues for Civil Operations (USICO), Wide Maritime Area Airborne Surveillance (WIMAA) and Micro Drone Autonomous Navigation for Environment Sensing (µDRONES). Between four and 20 million euro are distributed among European research networks, which regularly include companies and institutes from Israel (see Table 2).

It is becoming evident that this research is exclusively appliance-oriented and directed by (major) private military contractors. The number of leading companies is small and the participating research and development departments are located in Israel and Core Europe (KernEuropa); police organisations play no role. [53]

Lofty lobbying

Despite these dilemmas, the aviation and space industry syndicates have developed a timeline [54] for the comprehensive penetration of UAVs, particularly in the commercial arena, which they intend to enforce with a series of events, trade shows, fora and informal meetings.

From the end of the 1990s onwards, several working groups, were set up, such as the German Aerospace Industries Associations (Bundesverband der Deutschen Luft-und Raumfahrtindustrie e.V., BdLI), a comprehensive UAS expert committee which comprised 28 members in 2008. Since its foundation in February 2006, the committee has been dominated by representatives of Rheinmetall Defence Electronics, EADS Deutschland, MTU Aero Engines Holding and Diehl BGT Defence. [55] By its own account, the committee engages in the external representation of the interests of the German UAV industry, determines national technology and industry policies, develops proposals for research and technology support and programmes and provides "political support for the proposal procedure for the admission of UAVs to unrestricted airspace" - in other words the enforcement of civil and commercial use of drones in national and international airspace. [56] The BdLI expert


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