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UVS International, founded in 1999, comprises 260 members from industry, academia and other institutions. They come from 36 countries and ten international organisations covering all five continents. [59] From its inception the organisation said it aimed for a "significant number of honorary members" made up of "representatives of national civil aviation authorities or serving military officers". The intention was to establish an (informal) international network "instead of having to go through official channels". [60] Honorary German members include, among others, representatives of the German Air Force Flight Test Centre (Wehrtechnische Dienststelle für Luftfahrzeuge, WTD 61), the state-owned Aeronautical Information Service Centre (Deutsche Flugsicherung GmbH), the Ministry of Defence, the Air Force and the Army Office, as well as international representatives from military and civil organisations such as the European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA), the European Defence Agency (EDA), the European Organisation for the Safety of Air Navigation (EUROCONTROL) and the USA Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). [61] The German involvement in (international) planning, implementation and deployment of UAVs is almost exclusively reserved for the military, (para)state airspace

agencies,

representatives

of

the

relevant

federal

ministries

and

predominantly university electronic and engineering departments. The UAV industry therefore does not represent the "existence of a police-industrial complex, in which security industry and state as well as private security administration are closely interwoven", [62] but rather a military stepping stone for comprehensive future civil use. The police force remains focused on the relatively small-scale management of marginal groups.

Sources

[1] Bone, E.; Bolkcom, C.: Unmanned Aerial Vehicles: Background and Issues for Congress, Washington D.C. 2003, p. 1 [2] Teal Group Corporation: World Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Systems. Market Profile and Forecast, Fairfax/VA 2009, p. 2 [3] 45 countries are in possession of UAVs, see van Blyenburgh, P.: The Importance of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (Presentation on 1.2.08 during EASA-UAS Workshop),

Paris,

p.

18

f.;

see

http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Liste_der_unbemannten_Flugger%C3%A4te [4] ibid., p. 19; see Eick, V.: “You’ll never walk alone…“ Selling Security, Surveillance, and State-sponsored Social Sorting (Presentation on 2.10.08,

"Targeted Publics: Arts and Technologies of the Security City Barcelona, p. 33 [5] Non-airborne drones, i.e. Unmanned Ground Vehicles (UGVs)

" Conference),

or Unmanned

Naval Vessels (UNVs) are not included; see TALOS Project (Transportable Autonomous Patrol for Land Border Surveillance) on automated control of EU external borders, http://cordis.europa.eu/fp7/projects_en.html, the Australian automated de-mining (Autonavigational Minesweeping Control System, AMCS),

www.nrw.qld.gov.au/gnss/pdf/industry_directory.pdf,

p.

25,

the

autonomous

submarine

Talisman

L,

coasts/12166/,

the

www.gizmag.com/unmanned-mini-sub-protects-ports-

Samsung

war

robot

Sentinella,

www.dailymotion.com/video/xg078_robot-sentinella. See also reply by the government to parliamentary question of the Green faction Bündnis 90/Die Grünen: Einführung und Bedeutung ziviler unbemannter Fahrzeuge [Implementation and

8

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