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Pre-publication draft; please do not quote or circulate. P. Gray, Play in Hunter-Gatherers p 1 - page 29 / 33





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Pre-publication draft; please do not quote or circulate.  P. Gray, Play in Hunter-Gatherers   p 29



1 Concerning agriculture’s origins, see Jared Diamond, Guns, Germs, and Steel (1997), 93-103.

2 For dating of the human ancestral split from other apes, see Michael C. Corballis, “Phylogeny from Apes to Humans,” in M. C. Corballis & S. E. G. Lea (Eds.), The Descent of Mind: Psychological Perspectives on Human Evolution (1999), 40-70. For discussion of human origins, see Melvin Konner, The Tangled Wing, Revised and Updated Edition (2002), 29-53.

3 Robert L. Kelly, The Foraging Spectrum: Diversity in Hunter-Gatherer Lifeways (1995), 302-303.

4 Ibid.

5 Ibid.

6  For reviews of similarities and differences among immediate-return hunter-gatherer societies, see Kelly, The Foraging Spectrum; Susan Kent, “Cultural Diversity among African Foragers: Causes and Implications,” in S. Kent (Ed.), Cultural Diversity Among Twentieth-Century Foragers (1996), 1-18; Richard B. Lee, “Reflections on Primitive Communism,” in T. Ingold, D. Riches & J. Woodburn (Eds.), Hunters and Gatherers I (1988); Richard B. Lee & Richard Daly (Eds.), The Cambridge Encyclopedia of Hunters and Gatherers (1999); Peter Rowley-Conwy, “Time, Change, and the Archaeology of Hunter-Gatherers,” in C. Panter-Brick, R. H. Layton, & P. Rowley-Conwy (Eds.), Hunter-Gatherers: An Interdisciplinary Perspective (2001), 39-72; and James Woodburn, “Egalitarian Societies,” Man 17 (1982), 431-451.

7 Kelly, Foraging Spectrum, 304. Also, Marian Vanhaeren & Francesco d’Errico, “Grave Goods from the Saint-Germain-la Riverere Burial: Evidence for Social Inequality in the Upper Paleolithic,” Journal of Anthropological Archaeology, 24 (2005), 117-134.

8 Particularly useful sources in generating the list were Johan Huizinga, Homo Ludens (1955); Kenneth H. Rubin, Greta G. Fein, & Brian Vandenberg, “Play,” in P. H. Mussen & E. M. Hetherington (Eds.), Handbook of Child Psychology, Vol. 4 (1983), 693-774; Peter K. Smith, “Play: Types and Functions in Human Development,” in B. J. Ellis & D. F. Bjorklund (Eds.), Origins of the Social Mind (2005), 271-291; and Lev S. Vygotsky, “The Role of Play in Development,” in M. Cole, V. John-Steiner, S. Scribner, & E. Souberman (Eds.). Mind in Society: The Development of Higher Psychological Processes (1978), 92-104.

9 I’m alluding here to research such as that of Theresa Amabila on artistic creativity, Alice Isen on creative problem solving, and Mihalyi Csikszentmihalyi on “flow.”

10 General references for points made here and the next two paragraphs are the same as those listed in note 6.

11 Tim Ingold, “On the Social Relations of the Hunter-Gatherer Band,” in R. B. Lee & R. Daly (Eds.), The Cambridge Encyclopedia of Hunters and Gathers (1999) 399-410; Woodburn, “Egalitarian Societies,” 431-451.

12 For a discussion of how the freedom to move serves as a leveling device in hunter-gatherer bands, see Woodburn, “Egalitarian Societies,” 435-436.

13 Ingold, “Social Relations of the Hunter-Gatherer Band,” 399-410.

14 Ibid. 406.

15 Lee, “Reflections on Primitive Communism,” 264.

16 Ingold, “Social Relations of the Hunter-Gatherer Band,” 408; Polly Wiessner, “Leveling the Hunter: Constraints on the Status Quest in Foraging Societies,” in P. Wiessner & W. Schiefenhövel (Eds.), Food and the Status Quest: An Interdisciplinary Perspective (1996), 171-192.

17 For a good discussion of consensual decision-making in one hunter-gatherer society, see George Silberbauer, “Political Process in G/wi Bands,” in E. Leacock & R. Lee (Eds.), Politics and

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