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Pre-publication draft; please do not quote or circulate.  P. Gray, Play in Hunter-Gatherers   p 30

History in Band Societies (1982), 23-36. Other, more general references on hunter-gatherers’ egalitarian decision-making are the same as those in note 5. See especially the reference to Kent (1996).

18 Colin Turnbull, The Forest People (1968), 114.

19 Elizabeth Marshall Thomas, The Old Way (2006), 218.

20 Lee, “Reflections on Primitive Communism,” 264.

21 Richard B. Lee, The Dobe Ju/’hoansi, 3rd Edition (2003).

22 Ibid. 52.

23 Jan A. R. A. M. van Hooff, “A Comparative Approach to the Phylogeny of Laughter and Smiling,” in R. A. Hinde (Ed.), Nonverbal Communication (1972), 209-238.

24 Wiessner, “Leveling the Hunter,” 171-192.

25 Thomas, Old Way (2006), 101.

26 For this and general discussion of hunter-gatherer rules for distributing meat, see Wiessner, “Leveling the Hunter,” 171-192.

27 Richard A. Gould, Yiwara: Foragers of the Australian Desert  (1969).

28 Wiessner, “Leveling the Hunter,” 182.

29 Kirk Endicott, “Property, Power, and Conflict among the Batek of Malaysia, in T. Ingold, D. Riches, & J. Woodburn (Eds.), Hunters and Gatherers 2: Property, Power, and Ideology (1988).

30 Wiessner, “Leveling the Hunter,” 171-192.

31 Nurit Bird-David, “The Giving Environment: Another Perspective on the Economic System of Gatherer-Hunters,” Current Anthropology, 31 (1990), 189-196.

32 Kim Hill, “Altruistic Cooperation During Foraging by the Ache, and the Evolved Human Predisposition to Cooperate,” Human Nature, 13 (2002), 105-128.

33 Brian Hayden, “Feasting in Prehistoric and Traditional Societies,” in P. Wiessner & W. Schiefenhövel (Eds.), Food and the Status Quest: An Interdisciplinary Perspective (1996), 127-147.

34 Polly Wiessner, “Hunting, Healing, and Hxaro Exchange: A Long-Term Perspective on !Kung (Ju/’hoansi) Large-Game Hunting,” Evolution and Human Behavior, 23 (2002), 407-436.

35 Polly Wiessner, Risk, Reciprocity and Social Influences on !Kung San Economics,” in E. Leacock & R. Lee (Eds.), Politics and History in Band Societies (1982), 61-82.

36 A similar point was made by Huizinga, Homo Ludens, 25.

37 Mathias Guenther, “From Totemism to Shamanism: Hunter-Gatherer Contributions to World Mythology and Spirituality,” in R. B. Lee & R. Daly (Eds.), The Cambridge Encyclopedia of Hunters and Gathers (1999), 426-433.

38 Thomas, Old Way (2006), 253-273.

39 Ibid.

40 Kirk Endicott, Batek Negrito Religion: The World-View and Rituals of a Hunting and Gathering People of Peninsular Malaysia (1979), 163-164.

41 Guenther, “From Totemism to Shamanism,” 427-428.

42 Matt J. Rossano, “The Religious Mind and the Evolution of Religion,” Review of General Psychology, 10 (2006), 346-364.

43 For references, see Daisaku Tsuru, “Diversity of Ritual Spirit Performances among the Baka Pygmies in Southeastern Camaroon,” African Study Monographs, Suppl. 25 (1998), 47-83.

44  For examples: Nurit Bird-David, “Beyond ‘The Original Affluent Society,’” Current Anthropology, 33 (1992), 25-47; and Thomas, Old Way, 246-248.

45 Elizabeth Marshall Thomas, The Harmless People (1959), 152.

46 Gould, Yiwara  (1969), 128.

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