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as bondage and discipline. Couples also report the use of sex toys and erotic materials to enhance sexual pleasure.
Extramarital sexual activity is reported by 25% of married men and 15% of married women (Laumann, et al., 1994). Typically, the spouse is unaware of the partner’s extramarital sexual activity. Many men and women will engage in this activity only once while they are married; at the other end of the frequency continuum are those who engage in it throughout their marriages. The incidence varies by ethnicity; 27% of Blacks report extramarital sexual activity compared with 14% of Whites (Smith, 1994). Hispanics report the same incidence as Whites (Laumann, et al., 1994). Several reasons have been suggested for extramarital relationships, including perceived inequity (Sprecher, 1999), dissatisfaction with marital sexual relationships, dissatisfaction with or conflict within the marriage, and placing greater emphasis on personal growth and pleasure than fidelity (Lawson, 1988). Recent research has broadened the study of “cheating” by looking at couples who are cohabiting or in a committed relationship and inquired about involvement with a third person. One study of such extradyadic relations, with a sample of 349 persons ages 17 to 70 (48% married), found that 28% of men and 29% of women had cheated on a current partner (Hicks & Leitenberg, 2001).
Non-dyadic sexual relationships
Polyamory is emotional and (almost always) sexual involvement with more than one person at a time, with the informed consent of all parties. There are a number of different structures for polyamory. Relationships can be centered around a primary relationship between two people (one or both of whom have secondary relationships), they can be hinged (where one person has equal relationships with two or more other persons but the others do not have relationships with each other, though they may have additional relationships), or they can be